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Article

Arnige  

Ian Alsop and Kashinath Tamot

Nepalese sculptor, architect, and painter who worked in Tibet and China. A Newar from the Kathmandu Valley, Anige is now honoured in his native land as Nepal’s most famous artist of early times. He left his home at the age of 17 or 18, joining the myriads of wandering Newar artists who served the courts of the great lamas and emperors of Tibet and China. He so impressed his patrons at the court of the Mongol Yuan dynasty (...

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered....

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ...

Article

Chinese, 12th – 13th century, male.

Painter. Figures.

Song dynasty.

Bo Liangyu was a member of the academy of painting during the reign of Emperor Ningzong (1195-1225). He devoted himself to painting Taoist and Buddhist figures.

Article

Chinese, 13th – 14th century, male.

Active during the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368).

Painter.

Tokyo (National Mus.): Arhat Seated on a Rock (ink and light colours on silk)

Article

Chinese, 13th – 14th century, male.

Born 1271, in Huating (Jiangsu); died 1355.

Painter. Landscapes.

Yuan dynasty.

Cao Zhibai was a teacher at a government college during the reign of the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan (1264-1295). He then withdrew in order to devote himself to his Taoist studies and painting. He was a landscape artist and modelled his work on Guo Xi and Li Cheng....

Article

Chinese, 13th century, male.

Painter.

Song dynasty.

Chen Juzhong was an official painter at the Hangzhou Painting Academy between 1201 and 1204. He specialised in painting horses, Mongol horsemen and military scenes, and was gifted with a great sense of colour and composition.

Beijing (NM): ...

Article

Chinese, 13th – 14th century, male.

Active in Hangzhou (Zhejiang)c.1260-1320.

Painter.

Although Chen Lin was the son of an official painter at the Hangzhou Academy, he was not one of the literati painters. He was a friend of the painter Zhao Mengfu, and painted birds and flowers, landscapes and figures....

Article

Chinese, 13th century, male.

Born in Qiantang (Zhejiang).

Painter.

Song dynasty.

Chen Qingbo was a member of the Hangzhou Painting Academy during the Baoyu period (1253-1258). He was a landscape artist and often depicted scenes of West Lake, Hangzhou.

Article

Chinese, 13th century, male.

Born in Sichuan.

Painter.

Song dynasty.

Chen Rong specialised in painting dragons. He passed his jinshi (accomplished scholar) examinations in 1235 and is also known as a poet of the Baoyu period (1253-1258).

Boston (MFA): Nine Dragons (dated 1244...

Article

Chinese, 13th century, male.

Active in Hangzhou (Zhejiang).

Painter.

Song dynasty.

Chen Zongxun was a member of the Imperial Painting Academy during the Shaoding period (1228-1233). He painted figures in the style of Su Hanchen.

Article

Chinese, 13th century, male.

Active in the second half of the 18th century.

Painter.

Washington DC (Freer Gal. of Art): Gengzuo tu (handscroll made up of twenty-one pictures illustrating rice culture, each picture accompanied by a poem in seal script, several colophons)

Article

Helmut Brinker

Chinese Zen master and calligrapher, active in Japan. He was the first recognized Chinese Chan (Jap. Zen) teacher to reach Japan. He became a major figure in the transmission of the doctrines and spirit of Rinzai (Chin. Linji) Zen and the introduction of Chinese Song-period (...

Article

Echizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan, based on some 20 kiln sites 7 km north-west of the city of Takefu (Fukui Prefect.). Echizen is known as one of Japan’s ‘Six Old Kilns’. It is one of three centres that arose in the area (the others being Kaga and Suzu) in the 12th century in response to increased agricultural production. Ceramics appeared in Fukui Prefecture in the 6th century ...

Article

Term used to refer collectively to a group of Chinese scholars and poets active in Wuxing in the 1280s. The group seems to have disbanded in 1286 when their leading figure, Zhao Mengfu (see Zhao family, §1), accepted the invitation to go to court. ...

Article

Eiheiji  

Dennis Lishka

Japanese Zen Buddhist monastery of the Sōtō sect, in Fukui Prefecture. Eiheiji’s significance derives largely from the place in the history of Japanese Buddhism of its founder, Dōgen (1199–1253), and to his interpretation of Sōtō Zen monastic practice. After 1217 Dōgen joined the dominant Tendai school of Buddhism, but he grew disillusioned with Japanese Buddhism as a feasible human soteriology, although he was much attracted to the practice of Zen meditation. In ...

Article

En-I  

Japanese, 13th century, male.

Active at the end of the 13th century.

Painter.

En-I had the honorary title hogen. His name and title appear on the back of the Ippen Shonin Hiriji-e (the illustrated biography of Ippen), the work he dedicated to him. Ippen (...

Article

Chinese, 13th century, male.

Born in Qiantang (Zhejiang).

Painter. Fish.

Song dynasty.

Fan Anren specialised in painting fish. He was a member of the Imperial Painting Aca­demy from 1253 to 1258.

Boston (MFA): Two Carp Jumping in Waves (attributed)

Article

Chinese, 13th century, male.

Monk-painter. Animals.

Fan Zimin was a Taoist monk. He was hardly known as a painter.

Chicago (AI): Oxen in Pasture (handscroll, ink on paper, signed, colophon)

Article

Sadako Ohki, Cecil H. Uyehara, Nicole Fabricand-Person and Joan H. O’Mara

Japanese family of Courtiers, regents (sesshō, kanpaku) and artists. They wielded enormous power during much of the Heian period (ad 794–1185) and played a leading role in the regency government (sekkan seiji; ad 967–1068). The years 894–1185 are often referred to as the Fujiwara period. The Fujiwara clan was founded by Nakatomi no Kamatari (614–69), who had assisted Prince Naka no Oe (later Emperor Tenji, ...