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Article

Agano  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese region in Buzen Province (now part of Fukuoka Prefect.), northern Kyushu, where stonewares were manufactured at various sites from c. 1600 (see also Japan, §IX, 3, (i), (d)).

The first potter to make Agano ware was the Korean master Chon’gye (Jap. Sonkai; ...

Article

Arita  

Hiroko Nishida

Region in Japan, now part of Saga Prefecture, and the name of a type of porcelain first produced there during the early Edo period (1600–1868). The ware was originally known as Imari yaki (‘Imari ware’) because it was shipped from the port of Imari (Saga Prefect.). During the Meiji period (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Porcelain bearing heraldic arms, often used to denote porcelain with coats of arms imported into Europe and the USA from China from the late 18th century to the early 20th.

D. S. Howard: Chinese Armorial Porcelain (London, 2003)

Article

Banko  

Andrew Maske and Gordon Campbell

Japanese centre of pottery and porcelain production. Kilns were established in the mid-18th century in Ise Province (Mie Prefecture); production eventually spread as far as Edo (now Tokyo); ‘banko’, which was imprinted on the seals, means ‘eternal’. In the 18th century the area produced raku ware and Satsuma types and decorative patterns taken from Ming Dynasty red and green porcelain. The rise in the use of steeped tea (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Western name for Chinese porcelain of the Kangxi period (1662–1722) imported by Dutch merchants through the Dutch trading station at Batavia (now Jakarta). This porcelain, which was brown-glazed, decorated with panels and usually painted in blue, was imitated by European manufacturers, notably at Meissen and Leeds, and these imitations are known as Batavia ware....

Article

Gordon Campbell

English painter of pottery and porcelain and the proprietor of a China decorating firm. In 1834 he began to work for Copeland, and during this period he may have developed the formula for Parian ware. He is given credit for its invention in the catalogue of the Great Exhibition of ...

Article

Hélène Guéné-Loyer

French ceramics manufacturer. He was initially a physics and chemistry teacher and in 1889 visited the Exposition Universelle in Paris, where he saw Chinese porcelain with opaque glazes that enhanced the ground colours and emphasized the forms of the body. He transferred this technique to stoneware, a less expensive material that has the advantage of being able to withstand great variations of temperature when fired. In this way, with one type of ceramic body, it is possible to vary the degree to which enamels are fused in order to obtain dull, oily or crystalline finishes in the greatest possible variation of colours....

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Type of Chinese vase, made since the 9th century ad, shaped like a narrow-necked pear with a flared lip.

Article

Elizabeth Adams

English ceramic manufactory. The first Bow patent for ‘a certain material whereby a ware might be made … equal to … China or Porcelain ware imported from abroad’ was taken out in east London in December 1744 by the Irish artist Thomas Frye (c....

Article

Gordon Campbell

One-piece teapot with no lid, filled through a hole in the bottom; the tea runs through a tube from the bottom to the top, and when the teapot is turned to an upright position the tea can be poured through the spout. The design was based on a Chinese wine-pot, of which an example must have been brought to England in the late 18th century, possibly by a member of the family of the Earl of Cadogan. Cadogan teapots were first manufactured in the early 19th century at the Rockingham Porcelain Factory and thereafter by other English manufacturers....

Article

Roger S. Edmundson

English ceramic manufactory. Production at the Salopian China Manufactory on the Caughley estate, near Ironbridge, Salop, was started in 1775 by Thomas Turner (1749–1809), a Freeman of Worcester, and Ambrose Gallimore (fl c. 1749–c. 1787), who was active at the estate and may already have been directing potting there. They were encouraged by the availability of coal on site and the proximity of the Severn waterway to Worcester and Bristol as potential markets. ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Talcose granite with partly-decomposed feldspar, used for producing a glaze in the manufacture of porcelain. China stone is a form of petuntse (see under Ceramics, §I, 2, (iii), §I, 2(iii)).

Article

Gordon Campbell

Term used to describe the a soft white or pale blue–grey glaze of Kangxi and Yong Zheng porcelain.

Article

Lillian B. Miller

American businessman, collector, patron and dealer. He began collecting art in 1869 with paintings by American Hudson River school artists and conventional European works, Chinese porcelain, antique pottery and 17th- and 18th-century English furniture. By 1883 his taste had focused entirely on American works, especially on paintings by ...

Article

Hiroko Nishida

Japanese ceramicist. He was the second-generation head of the Dōhachi family. His father, Dōhachi, son of a retainer of the Kameyama fief in the province of Ise, established a kiln at Awataguchi in Kyoto in the Hōreki era (1751–64), thereby forming his own school, and later assumed the name Takahashi Dōhachi. Along with ...

Article

Echizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan, based on some 20 kiln sites 7 km north-west of the city of Takefu (Fukui Prefect.). Echizen is known as one of Japan’s ‘Six Old Kilns’. It is one of three centres that arose in the area (the others being Kaga and Suzu) in the 12th century in response to increased agricultural production. Ceramics appeared in Fukui Prefecture in the 6th century ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Porcelain ware of extreme thinness and delicacy, known in China as t’o-t’ai (‘bodiless’ ware)

Article

Hiroko Nishida

Japanese potter. He is thought to have been the grandson of Chinese immigrants who came to Japan to escape the turbulence at the end of the Ming period (1368–1644). He was adopted into the Okuda family of wealthy pawnbrokers, who patronized the Buddhist temple Kenninji, where, according to one account, Eisen lodged for a time. The temple was famous as a centre of Chinese learning, and it was probably this contact that stimulated Eisen’s first attempts at making Chinese-style ceramics. By the 1780s he was producing copies of late Ming-period enamelled porcelain called ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

English collector. The eldest son of a Greek merchant, Eumorfopoulos worked for the merchant firm of Ralli Brothers. He initially collected European porcelains and Japanese tea bowls but then turned to Chinese objects, which became his largest collection, emphasizing pottery and porcelains. His second interest was metalwork, and he formed a fine collection of Chinese bronzes; he was also interested in other media, such as jade. He chose items based on his aesthetic response rather than archaeological or rarity value, and he thus placed himself at the forefront of Western taste for Chinese art. From ...