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Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 28 March 1868, in Solothurn; died 1961, in Oschwand (Bern).

Painter, watercolourist, pastellist, engraver, lithographer, sculptor. Figure compositions, portraits, landscapes, still-lifes.

Die Brücke group. School of Pont-Aven.

Cuno Amiet began his artistic training under Frank Buchser in Feldbrunnen from 1884 to 1886. From 1886 to 1888 he trained at the academy of fine art in Munich. From 1888 to 1891 he trained under the guidance of William Bouguereau and Tony Robert-Fleury at the Académie Julian in Paris. Up to that point he had been influenced by Impressionism, which was still very much in evidence. Then in 1892, he went to Pont-Aven and made contact with O'Connor, Émile Bernard, Sérusier and Armand Seguin. They introduced him to the ideas and techniques suggested by Gauguin to those who would soon be classed as the École de Pont-Aven. They would also call themselves 'Nabis'....

Article

Swiss painter and sculptor. From 1884 to 1886 he received irregular lessons from the Swiss painter Frank Buscher (1828–90). In the autumn of 1886 he attended the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Munich and the following year met Giovanni Giacometti, who was to be a lifelong friend. In ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1880; died 1966.

Architect, painter.

Die Brücke group.

Fritz Bleyl was an architecture student at the Dresden technical high school. He met Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Heckel and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, together with whom he founded The Bridge ( Die Brücke...

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born in Stralsund.

Painter. Genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes, architectural views.

Brücke worked in Berlin around 1840 to 1845.

Hanover: Views of the New Guards Barracks in Berlin; View of the Palace of Frederick William III; View of the Palace of King Ernest August of Hanover in Berlin...

Article

Günther Kühne

German architect, urban planner and teacher. He studied architecture at the Technische Hochschule, Berlin (1939–42), returning there to the Technische Universität (1947–8) after service in World War II and a period as a prisoner of war in England. He worked in the city building department of West Berlin from ...

Article

N. A. Furness

German art historian. Although he had received a conventional classical education at the Kreuzschule in Dresden and was awarded a DPhil by the Universität Leipzig in 1913 for a dissertation on 18th-century German drama, he was drawn to the study of art by exhibitions of painting by Die Brücke in Dresden in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 31 July 1883, in Döbeln (Saxony); died 1970, in Radolfzell.

Painter, engraver.

Die Brücke group.

Erich Heckel studied architecture at the technical university in Dresden in 1904-1905; his fellow students included Kirchner, Fritz Bleyl and Karl Schmitt-Rottluf. As a group they were passionate about the ferment of artistic expression resulting from the Munich Jugenstil movement, which would later come to be regarded as one of the wellsprings of 20th century art. Heckel settled in Berlin on his return from World War I, having served in the medical corps in Belgium for the duration. In 1937, the Nazis confiscated 729 of his canvases, declaring his work 'degenerate'. During World War II, his studio was destroyed in a bombardment in 1944, and he then settled in Hemmenhofen. After the war, he was appointed professor at the academy of arts in Karlsruhe from either 1945 or 1949 to 1954....

Article

Lucius Grisebach

German painter, printmaker and sculptor. He was one of the founders of the group Brücke, Die and one of its most influential and active members. His work was central to German Expressionism.

Heckel began painting and drawing as a schoolboy in Chemnitz, where he became a friend of ...

Article

Lucius Grisebach and Lin Barton

German painter, printmaker, and sculptor. He is one of the most important representatives of Expressionism (see Expressionism, §1). He was the leading figure in Brücke, Die, which was active in Dresden and Berlin from 1905 to 1913. His pictures of urban life have become the incarnation of the nervously agitated modern state of mind in Europe on the eve of World War I. After ...

Article

Sergey Kuznetsov

Lithuanian draughtsman, printmaker and illustrator. He studied at the Lithuanian State Institute of Art in Vilnius (1952–8) and taught there from 1961. During the early 1950s his drawing was impressionistic, as in Portrait of My Wife (1959; artist’s estate). He was also a follower of German Expressionism, as represented by the group Die Brücke. Towards the 1960s he developed two different styles of illustration: the first consisted of flat, flowing lines, used mainly in linocuts; the second consisted of sculptural shapes expressed in woodcuts. Krasauskas gradually moved towards the embodiment of abstract ideas in his work and became interested in zincography. From the mid-1960s he used his linear style to indicate the masculine creative principle and the sculptural to indicate eternal life, the feminine principle. The unpublished series of linocuts illustrating the Song of Songs (...

Article

Jaroslav Sedlář

Bohemian painter, printmaker and draughtsman. He studied at the School of Applied Arts in Prague, but left in 1906 to study at the Reale Istituto di Belle Arti in Florence. In the same year, with Emil Filla and Antonin Procházka among others, he founded Eight, the...

Article

A. Deirdre Robson

American businessman and collector. May’s family wealth came from the May Department Stores. His collecting encompassed two separate strands: he was an enthusiastic collector of art from Africa, the Pacific Islands, and Central America, and he donated many such works to the St Louis Art Museum over several years. He also became well known as one of the earliest American collectors of ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 16 October 1874, in Liebau (Silesia); died 24 September 1930, in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland).

Painter, lithographer. Figures, nudes, figure compositions.

Groups: Die Brücke, Arbeitsrat für Kunst.

Otto Mueller's gypsy mother was raised in the home of the authors Carl and Gerhart Hauptmann. Her origins would prove a recurrent theme throughout his career. Mueller studied lithography in Görlitz from 1880 to 1894, then studied until 1896 at the academy in Dresden and under Franz von Stuck in Munich. Between 1894 and 1896, Mueller lived alternately in Switzerland and Italy and also spent time in Munich, Dresden and Liebau. He eventually settled in Berlin in 1908, meeting the sculptor Wilhelm Lehmbruck and the painter Erich Heckel. Mueller was excluded from the Secession in 1910 and aligned himself with ...

Article

Lucius Grisebach

German painter and printmaker. His mother was said to have been a gypsy, although this was never proved. He began his artistic training with an apprenticeship as a lithographer from 1890 until 1894 in Görlitz, Silesia. From 1894 to 1896 he studied at the Kunstakademie in Dresden. He returned to Silesia, however, travelling occasionally, for example to Switzerland, Italy and Munich. Towards the end of ...

Article

Malcolm Gee

German dealer and publisher, active in the USA. Israel Ber Neumann, known as J. B. Neumann, opened his first print gallery in Berlin in 1911, exhibiting work by Edvard Munch and members of Brücke, Die. In 1913 he exhibited the complete prints of Munch in three shows and in ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 7 August 1867, in Nolde; died 13 April 1956, in Siekbüll (Schleswig).

Painter, engraver, lithographer, sculptor. Religious subjects, figure compositions, figures, landscapes, seascapes.

Die Brücke, Dachau Artists’ Colony.

The son of a farmer, Emil Nolde’s early economic and social conditions were not conducive to an artistic career. He developed his talents as an apprentice woodcarver from 1884 to 1888 in Flensburg, with Heinrich Sauermann. He then worked as a designer in furniture factories in Munich, Karlsruhe, and Berlin. It was in Karlsruhe, from 1888, that he took up drawing and painting, initially at evening classes, then full-time at the Kunstgewerbeschule (School of Arts and Crafts). From 1889 to 1892, he lived in Berlin, where he worked as a design draughtsman for the Pfaff furniture factory. In 1892, he taught ornamental draughtsmanship at the Gewerbemuseum at St Gall, Switzerland, where he stayed for seven years. It was here that he began to draw and paint watercolours of landscapes and faces in his spare time....

Article

Jill Lloyd

German painter, watercolourist, and printmaker. He was one of the strongest and most independent of the German Expressionists. Nolde belonged to the Dresden-based group known as Brücke, Die from 1906 to 1907. Primarily a colourist, he is best known for his paintings in oil, his watercolours, and his graphic work. His art was deeply influenced by the stark natural beauty of his north German homeland, and alongside numerous landscapes, seascapes, and flower paintings, Nolde also produced works with religious and imaginary subjects....

Article

Lucius Grisebach

German painter and printmaker. He was apprenticed as a decorator in Zwickau from 1896 to 1900, when he moved to Dresden to enrol at the Kunstgewerbeschule, where he met the architect Wilhelm Kreis and the painter Otto Gussmann (1869–1926) and obtained decorative commissions. He continued his studies from ...

Article

Lucius Grisebach

German painter and printmaker. One of the main exponents of Expressionism, he was a founder of Brücke, Die and one of its leading members. As a boy he got to know Erich Heckel at grammar school, following in his footsteps in 1905 when he enrolled as an architectural student at the Sächsische Technische Hochschule in Dresden; there Heckel introduced him to another student, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, four years his senior, and to Kirchner’s friend, the painter Fritz Bleyl (...

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Active in Berlin.

Painter. Genre scenes, portraits.

Wilhelm Schumann was the pupil of Brucke and contributed to exhibitions at the academy in Berlin from 1830 to 1844.