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Article

Jonathan Stephenson and Andy Penaluna

Hand-held painting instrument, of about the same size as or slightly larger than a pen, that delivers paint in a controlled spray. It is connected to a supply of compressed air by a flexible hose and draws paint from an integral reservoir or attached cup. Depending on the sophistication of the model, the user may control the supply of air and paint and the spray pattern in varying degrees. Additional effects are achieved by a form of stencilling, using special masking film or other means to protect areas of the artwork that are either yet to be worked upon, or have already been completed by the artist. An airbrush may be used with any paint if it is sufficiently thinned and contains pigment particles that are suitably fine. Dyes are also employed. Versions of several media exist that are specifically intended for airbrush application....

Article

Bojan Ivanov

Macedonian painter. In 1962 he graduated from the Academy of Arts in Belgrade, where he studied under the painter Ljubica Sokićh (b 1914). After returning to Skopje, Anastasov began to work in the field of non-figurative art. In the 1960s he focused on the structural qualities of the painting’s surface, which he rendered with layers of red and black impasto. By the end of the 1960s, stimulated by ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1938, in New York.

Painter, watercolourist. Urban landscapes.

John Baeder paints in an exaggerated realist style which places him among the Hyperrealists. He enjoys painting typically American places, such as small tourist camps and converted trucks, buses or trailers used for selling hamburgers by the side of the road or in towns....

Article

Janet Bishop

American painter. Native of the San Francisco Bay Area, known for careful observation and explicit use of snapshot-like photographic source material for paintings of family, cars, and residential neighborhoods. The artist rose to national and international prominence in early 1970s as part of the Photorealist movement (...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1935; died 1995.

Painter.

Charles Bell practises the technique of photorealism, often featuring unusual objects, even children's mechanical toys, avoiding the stereotype of Hyper-Realism by starting from an existing reality that is either ready-made or already at two removes thanks to photography. He has taken part in group exhibitions on Hyper-Realism at the Institute of Arts in Kalamazoo, the South Bend Art Center, the Springfield Art Museum (Missouri), the Dartmouth College Museums and Galleries, Hanover, and the DeCordova Museum, Lincoln (Massachusetts)....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 9 March 1938, in Chicago.

Painter.

Tom Blackwell's early work was abstract, but influenced by Pop Art, he moved towards photorealism and began to paint large-scale works, which often featured motorcycles, cars and planes.

1966, Psychedelic Art, Riverside Museum, New York...

Article

Milan Ivelić

Chilean painter and draughtsman. He studied painting in Santiago in 1947–8 with the Chilean painter Miguel Venegas, then lived in Spain from 1961 to 1972 before moving to Tangiers. His entire artistic career has been conducted outside his native country.

Bravo initially worked as a portrait painter, supporting himself in Spain through commissions, which also introduced him into Spanish high society. His sitters included General Franco and his family. Later, while still in Spain, he began painting packages and wrapped objects in a polished, highly detailed realist style bordering on Photorealism but consciously related to the Spanish still-life tradition represented by Zurbarán and Velázquez, whose work he greatly admired. He remarked that he hoped to be regarded as one of the few 20th-century painters to have respected the work of the Old Masters and learnt from it....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Painter.

Capriata participated in group exhibitions from 1967 in various towns in Lorraine, Burgundy and elsewhere in France. Jean Capriata's technique borders on hyper-realism and his work is a highly complex permutation of extremely precise elements and vague and non-specific allusion....

Article

Marco Livingstone

English painter and printmaker. He began his studies in 1956 at Chelsea School of Art, London, continuing at the Royal College of Art (1960–63), one year below the students identified as originators of Pop art. A reticent man, he remained wary of being identified with any movement but came to be associated with ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 14 November 1946, in Paris.

Painter. Scenes with figures.

Bernard Cazaux has lived and worked in Bordeaux since 1978. His painting technique is hyperrealist, tempered with diverse background images and elements inject a touch of humour to his compositions. He has had solo exhibitions in Toulouse (...

Article

American painter and printmaker. He studied (1960–65) at the University of Washington, Seattle, at Yale University, and at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna. During this period he painted biomorphic abstract works, influenced by the avant-garde American art of the previous two decades. After a brief experiment with figurative constructions, he began copying black-and-white photographs of a female nude in colour on to canvas. After abandoning this approach he used a black-and-white palette, which resulted in the 6.7 m long ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

English painter, draughtsman and printmaker. His childhood was spent in South Wales and from 1942 to 1960 in North Wales, near Wrexham. After studying at Wrexham School of Art (1960–61) and (as a Fine Art student) at the University of Reading (1961–4...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1943, in Toulouse.

Painter.

Richard Conte initially adopted a hyper-realist approach to drawing everyday scenes based on photo transparencies. One day, in a fit of anger, he is said to have screwed one of his drawings into a ball and hurled it into a corner of the studio. He found the drawing the following day and attempted to smooth it out, only to be left with a crumpled piece of paper which, to his surprise, he found aesthetically pleasing. This led to a collaboration with the couturiere Hélène Kievitch, for whom Conte went on to design ambiguous clothing' based on similarly crumpled - froissé - designs. More recently, Conte has started cutting up canvases to make theatre costumes and, in his series entitled ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1935, in Brooklyn (New York City).

Painter. Urban landscapes.

Robert Cottingham studied at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn. He has been staging solo exhibitions in the USA since 1968.

His painting is Hyperrealist in style and based on photographs. Urban signage is the constant theme of his work. The layout of most of his paintings is based on low-angled, off-centre views, often cutting off the subject. The meaning of the signs is of little interest to Cottingham, who is more concerned with their physical reality, the style of the lettering and their integration into the space of the canvas. His approach is not one of strict Realism but a stylisation of the real, using colours in flat tints....

Article

Australian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1947.

Painter, performance artist. Figures.

Ivan Durrant produces provocative photo-realist paintings and sculptures of animals that force viewers to acknowledge the butchery involved in the production of meat. In his seminal 1975 work, he left the bloody carcass of a cow outside the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne....

Article

Mark W. Sullivan

American painter and printmaker. Eddy studied at the University of Hawaii in Honolulu (BFA, 1967, MFA, 1969) and came to prominence in the early 1970s as an exponent of Photorealism, producing airbrushed paintings based on photographs of automobiles (e.g. Untitled, 1971; Aachen, Neue Gal.), the displays in shop windows or still-lifes, as in ...

Article

Christopher Brookeman

American painter. He moved with his family to Chicago, where he studied at the Art Institute (1952–6), before going to New York, where most of his paintings are set (although later works were often finished in his house in Maine). His first one-man show was held at the Allan Stone Gallery, New York, in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA from 1983.

Born 1944, in Nice.

Draughtsman.

Hyperrealist.

A second-generation artist of the Nice School, Roland Flexner left Nice in 1983 to move to New York. In his painting and drawing, Flexner draws on art history themes. He has interpreted funerary sculpture of the 15th century, the 'weeping figures', in a series of diptychs combining monochromatic flatness and almost life-size figures. In the 1990s, he explored the representation of the soul in his drawings, so masterfully executed they neared photo-realism. This was particularly the case in his portraits, in which he represented half of the face in the midst of a laugh or a yawn, with the other half remaining static. His ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

Swiss painter and printmaker. From 1947 to 1950 Gertsch studied at the Max von Mühlenen School of Painting in Bern. During this time he had his first solo exhibition (Galerie Simmen, Bern, 1949). His early works were influenced by Pop art. In 1969 he made his first realist painting, ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 29 August 1930, in Deinze (East Flanders); died 5 October 2012.

Painter.

Raoul de Keyser is a hyperrealist painter who studied at the academy in Deinze. His Loft series consists of 16 small monochrome panels exploring matter and movement.

1966...