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Dutch, 20th century, male.

Born 30 August 1883, in Utrecht, to a German father; died 7 March 1931, in Davos, Switzerland.

Painter, architect.

Neo-Plasticism.

Groups: Sphinx, De Stijl, Dada, Art Concret.

Theo van Doesburg was destined first of all for a theatrical career, writing poetry, stories and plays, and then beginning as an essayist and getting articles published. He probably began painting about ...

Article

Allan Doig

Dutch painter, architect, designer and writer. He was officially registered as the son of Wilhelm Küpper and Henrietta Catharina Margadant, but he was so convinced that his mother’s second husband, Theodorus Doesburg, was his father that he took his name. Little is known of his early life, but he began painting naturalistic subjects ...

Article

Dutch architect, urban planner, writer and teacher. Born into a family of building contractors, he was apprenticed to a firm of builders and carpenters in Dordrecht (1912–14) and then worked for Willem Kromhout in Rotterdam before studying architecture at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten, Rotterdam (...

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Allan Doig

Term coined by Theo van Doesburg and applied to painting and architecture to describe the constructive use of line, plane, volume and colour not only as the primary means of art but as an end in itself. In his article, ‘L’Elémentarisme et son origine’, he stated that the movement had been born in Holland in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 1901, in Wuppertal (Ruhr); died 1964 or 1978, in Blacksburg, USA.

Painter, photographer, designer.

Neo-Plasticism.

De Stijl, Novembergruppe, New Vision Photography..

Photobooks.

Werner Gräff was a student of Johannes Itten at the Bauhaus in Weimar between ...

Article

Eveline Vermeulen

Dutch architect and designer. He studied from 1906 to 1911 at the Birmingham School of Art, where he was influenced by the Arts and Crafts Movement, the Glasgow school and the theories of W. R. Lethaby. He then studied (1911–14) at the Architectural Association in London, where he met David Bomberg and became acquainted with the Futurist and Vorticist avant-garde. His first executed designs—Løvdalla (...

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Active in the Netherlands from 1905.

Born 1884, in Budapest; died 1960, in Hierden.

Painter. Figures, landscapes, still-lifes.

Neo-Plasticism.

De Stijl.

Vilmos Huszar studied at the school of applied art in Budapest and at the Hollósy studio in Munich. Shortly after his arrival in the Netherlands in ...

Article

Sjarel Ex

Hungarian painter, decorative artist, typographer and writer, active in the Netherlands. He studied at the Academy of Applied Arts in Budapest from 1901 to 1903, and then at the academy in Munich (1904). For a short period he was a member of the artists’ colonies of ...

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Leland M. Roth and Gordon Campbell

American architect, stage designer, furniture designer and writer of Austrian birth. In 1920 he worked with Adolf Loos in Vienna. He was also in contact with the artists associated with De Stijl and began experimenting with innovative theatre designs. In 1924 he produced the Endless Theatre design. The ‘Endless’ was a double-curved shell of reinforced concrete that could enclose any irregularly traditional divisions into floor, wall, and ceiling but offered the inhabitant an open interior that could be modified at will. For the theatre he adapted the ‘Endless’ by devising a double-spiral stage interconnected by ramps and rings of spectator seats. Kiesler believed that the Endless Theatre, without proscenium or curtain, projecting out into the audience, with perpetually moving walls bathed in light of ever changing colour, would promote greater interaction between actors and audience....

Article

Dutch, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 26 November 1876, in Utrecht; died 1958, in Blaricum-Amsterdam.

Painter, potter, lithographer. Murals, designs for stained glass.

Groups: De Stijl, Abstraction-Création.

Bart van der Leck started out working for various glassmakers in his native Utrecht before going on to attend the college of industrial arts (where he studied under A.J. van der Kinderen) and then the royal academy of fine arts in Amsterdam. He lived in Amersfoort ...

Article

John Steen

Dutch painter. She trained at the Rijksacademie in Amsterdam (1915–18). She discovered Cubism, especially that of Albert Gleizes, the work of De Stijl and of Le Corbusier in 1919. During 1920–21 the form in her work became more rigid and the colour more sober. She came into contact with works by Piet Mondrian in the ...

Article

John Steen

Group of Dutch artists founded in November 1910 on the initiative of John Conrad Theodor Kickert (1882–1965), a Dutch painter and critic, who had moved to Paris in 1909. The objective was to convey to the Netherlands the latest developments in painting in Paris. Its members included a large number of Dutch painters who either had connections with Paris or lived there. ...

Article

Dutch, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 7 March 1872, in Amersfoort (Utrecht), The Netherlands; died 1 February 1944, in New York (New York), United States.

Painter.

Neo-Plasticism.

De Stijl.

Piet Cornelis Mondrian was born into a strict Calvinist family. His father, the headmaster of a primary school in Amersfoort, insisted that his son secure his future by obtaining a degree in education. Mondrian complied with his father’s wishes and obtained formal qualifications enabling him to teach drawing and composition at secondary-school level. In 1892, however, Mondrian enrolled at the Rijksacademie in Amsterdam, where he is recorded as having been a diligent student. In order to earn some money, Mondrian gave drawing lessons in his spare time, sold copies of paintings that hung in local art galleries, and produced industrial blueprints. He maintained a close relationship with Jan Sluijters and Simon Maris, accompanying the latter on a trip to Spain in 1901....

Article

Dutch painter, theorist, and draughtsman. His work marks the transition at the start of the 20th century from the Hague school and Symbolism to Neo-Impressionism and Cubism. His key position within the international avant-garde is determined by works produced after 1920. He set out his theory in the periodical of ...

Article

H. Henkels

Term used by Piet (er Cornelis) Mondrian and other artists associated with Stijl, De in the 1910s and 1920s. The search for the ‘new imagery’ was characterized by the use of the most basic elements of image-making: straight lines (horizontal and vertical), the primary colours, and rectangular forms. The theosophist M. H. J. Schoenmaekers also used the term in writing about his central concepts in ...

Article

Eveline Vermeulen

Dutch architect and urban planner. He studied architecture at the Kunstnijverheidsschool Quellinus (1903–6) and at the Rijksnormaalschool voor Tekenonderwijzers (1908–10), both in Amsterdam, and at the Technische Universiteit in Delft. From 1906 to 1908 he was apprenticed to Joseph Cuypers and ...

Article

Marijke Küper

Dutch architect and furniture designer. He started work in his father’s furniture workshop at the age of 12, and then from 1906 to 1911 he worked as a draughtsman for C. J. Begeer, a jeweller in Utrecht. During 1904–8 he took evening classes in drawing and the study of ornamentation at the Kunstindustrieel Onderwijs der Vereeniging of the Museum van Kunstnijverheid in Utrecht. His interests nevertheless extended further than the applied arts. Around ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active from 1937 to 1954 active then naturalised in the Netherlands.

Born 1897 or 1899, in Osnabrück (Westphalia); died 1963, in Ulm.

Painter, collage artist.

Groups: 'K', De Stijl, Der Sturm, Cercle et Carré, Abstraction-Création.

Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart studied interior design and architecture in ...

Article

Sjarel Ex

Dutch designer and typographer . After working in the tradition of the Arts and Crafts Movement, he came into contact in 1917 with De Stijl, which fundamentally changed the course of his work. Through Vilmos Huszár and Jan Wils, he met H. P. Berlage, for whom he worked as a draughtsman, and international artists working in typographic design, such as Kurt Schwitters, El Lissitsky and Jan Tschichold. His international importance is based on typographical works, such as those he made between ...