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Article

Russian, 20th century, female.

Born 1916; died 2002.

Painter, draughtswoman. Nudes.

Tamara Chilovskaia worked in the workshop of her father, a Stalinist architect. The Galerie Patrick Frémeaux in Vincennes posthumously presented an exhibition of her drawings, Forbidden Nudes in 2004. Drawing of nudes was effectively prohibited by the Soviet regime. In these drawings, the artist gives free rein to a fluid, sensual stroke inherited from the Constructivism of Matisse's 1930s....

Article

International exhibition held in Paris from May to November 1937. It was memorable for the naked politics of competing national pavilions at the time of mounting international tensions. In turn, it introduced viewers to new art forms including Picasso’s Guernica (1937; Madrid, Prado), the prominent use of photomurals, and the modern paradigm of ‘transmediality’....

Article

Radomíra Sedláková

Czech architect and teacher. He graduated in architecture (1922) from the Technical University, Prague. With his fellow students Vít Obrtel (1901–88), Evžen Linhart and Karel Honzík he formed the Four Purists, who sought to simplify architectural form as much as possible to geometric volumes. In ...

Article

V. Rakitin

Russian painter, stage designer and administrator. He studied at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in Moscow (1903–15) under Abram Arkhipov, Nikolay Kasatkin and Korovin family, §2, among others. At the School he emerged as a leader of a group of traditionalists who contended with the avant-garde led by ...

Article

Catherine Cooke

Belarusian architect, urban planner, theorist and teacher. His age and background prepared him ideally for a central position among the architects who led the Modernist avant-garde in the USSR in the 1920s. He is best known for his leadership, with Aleksandr Vesnin, of the Constructivist architectural group from ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1893, in Moscow; died 1973, in Moscow.

Painter. Stage sets.

Socialist Realism.

Boris Ioganson studied first with Petr Ivanovich Kelin before attending the institute of painting, sculpture and architecture in Moscow from 1912 to 1918

He is considered to be one of the most important representatives of Socialist Realism; the subjects and the style of his relatively few works conform to the directives of the official line. Ioganson also wrote on painting and designed a number of theatre sets. A member of the USSR Academy of Arts, he was its president ...

Article

Anna Bentkowska

Polish painter, theatre designer and architect. He began his artistic education by taking lessons in sculpture and painting; he then trained as an architect at the Polytechnics of Lwów (1939–41) and Gdańsk (1945–6). He briefly studied painting as a student of ...

Article

John E. Bowlt

Russian sculptor. From 1892 to 1896 he attended the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, where he studied under Sergey Volnukhin (1859–1921), and from 1899 to 1902 he attended the St Petersburg Academy of Arts, studying under Vladimir Beklemishev (1861–1920). He moved quickly from the academic lessons of these teachers, reflected in such pieces as ...

Article

Radomíra Sedláková

Czech architect, theorist, graphic artist, designer, teacher and writer. He graduated in architecture from the Czech Technical University, Prague, where he studied with Jan Koula (1855–1919), Josef Fanta and Antonín Balšánek (1865–1921). While still studying he became a member of the ...

Article

Russian painter and designer. He attended the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in 1881–90, studying under Vladimir Makovsky, Vasily Polenov and Illarion Pryanishnikov, and joined the Wanderers (Peredvizhniki) in 1891. At first Malyutin supported the traditions of narrative Realism, as is clear from paintings such as ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1893, in Prislonikha; died 1972, in Prislonikha.

Painter. Scenes with figures, genre scenes, landscapes.

Socialist Realism.

Arkadi Aleksandrovich Plastov studied at the Stroganov school of painting and architecture in Moscow. He was a member of the USSR academy of arts and was awarded the Stalin Prize in ...

Article

M. N. Sokolov

Russian painter. He was from a peasant family, and he studied in Moscow, at the Stroganov School (1912–14) and also at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1914–17). The late Impressionist painting of members of the Union of Russian Artists, in particular Abram Arkhipov and Konstantin Korovin, as well as the lyrical, rich colourism of Sergey Gerasimov, had the greatest effect on Plastov. At first he worked mainly in posters and book illustration. He continued to produce book illustrations (e.g. to ...

Article

Soviet architect. He was one of the most prolific architects working in the monumental style of Socialist Realism promoted by Joseph Stalin. He studied at the Leningrad Art-Technical Institute under Ivan Fomin, and he then assisted Vladimir Shchuko in his competition entry (1933) for the Palace of the Soviets, Moscow, a fantastic confection in a neo-Byzantine style. His own work at the time was more restrained; for example, a block of flats (...

Article

Radomíra Sedláková

Czech architect. He graduated in architecture from the Czech Technical University, Prague, in 1949, beginning his career during the period of Socialist Realism. He then began to use new materials and structural elements; for example, his Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (1963), Prague, introduced a light curtain wall and a typical plan (low and wide entrance hall, with conference rooms, halls and restaurant, and high-rise office building) that was subsequently widely adopted by architects in Czechoslovakia. Other examples of his innovative structural designs include the use of Vierendeel bridge trusses in his extension (...

Article

Hungarian architect. He graduated in 1925 from the Hungarian Palatine Joseph Technical University, Budapest, then worked in the office of Kálmán Maróthy in Budapest until 1932. On several trips around Europe he studied the work of Fritz Höger and Peter Behrens in Germany and that of W. M. Dudok, Michel de Klerk and P. L. Kramer in the Netherlands, although his first significant independent work, St Anthony’s Church and Franciscan monastery (...

Article

Catherine Cooke

Russian architect, urban planner and restorer, of Moldovan birth. Although by nature a historicist, to whom undecorated Modernism was a response to poverty rather than an aim in itself, he came to occupy a central position in the formative years of Soviet Modernist architecture during the 1920s. His own best works, however, date in general from the periods before the Revolution of ...

Article

Katherine Zubovich

Architecture designed or built from the late 1920s to the mid-1950s during the Stalinist period in the USSR (1928–53) and after World War II in Eastern Bloc countries. Stalinist architecture is often characterized by its orientation towards classical and national traditions, by its monumentality, and by its representational ornament. The term also refers to the institutional framework within which architecture was practised in the Soviet Union following the First Five-Year Plan (...

Article

Hungarian architect, critic, urban planner and furniture designer . After graduating in 1929 from the Hungarian Palatine Joseph Technical University, Budapest, he joined the Bauhaus in Dessau, where he worked under Hannes Meyer. Weiner attended the CIAM II Congress (1929), Frankfurt, and, convinced that the architect’s mission was to serve and transform society, he followed Meyer and his group to the USSR in ...