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Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1900, in Tokyo.

Painter.

Kongo Abe spent time in France when Surrealism was emerging. The movement had a great influence on him and he introduced Surrealist ideas to Japan on his return.

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1918, in Damprémy.

Painter. Designs for jewellery.

Rémi van den Abeele studied at the academy of fine art in Mons. In the Belgian Surrealist circle centring around the painters Magritte and Delvaux, the poet Mesens, and many other artists, Van den Abeele went practically unnoticed until the 1960s. His Surrealism arises from unexpected juxtapositions of different objects, based on the method used by the poet Lautréamont, the objects being painted in ...

Article

British, 20th century, female.

Born 1 December 1904, in Buenos Aires, to a Scottish father and an American mother; died 17 November 1991, in London.

Painter, collage artist.

Surrealism.

London Group, English Surrealist Group.

Eileen Agar trained initially under Leon Underwood, and subsequently under Henry Tonks at the Slade School of Art in London until 1926. Although flirting with Post-Impressionist techniques fashionable at that time, early works such as her ...

Article

Whitney Chadwick

English painter of Argentine birth. She arrived in England in 1906; in 1924 she studied with Leon Underwood (1890–1975), and she attended the Slade School of Fine Art, London, from 1925 to 1926; she also studied art in Paris from 1928 to 1930...

Article

Beninese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1964.

Painter (mixed media).

Simplice Ahouansou is self-taught. In a manner that shows affinities with Surrealism, some of his paintings comment with irony on certain aspects of modern Western civilisation, such as communication, or protection of private property, while other works seem more firmly anchored in the artistic traditions of his native country of Benin....

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 1928.

Painter. Scenes with figures.

A follower of the Surrealist painter, Juán Battle Planas, Aizenberg took up experiments in collage undertaken by Max Ernst. He created small pictures that present minuscule figures contemplating the dusk from high terraces in unknown towns in vast landscapes with infinite horizons. He used grey or gilt tonalities, which makes his canvases more intimate and secret....

Article

Horacio Safons

Argentine painter, draughtsman and collagist. He studied under Juan Batlle Planas from 1950 to 1953 and quickly established the terms of his work, rooted ideologically in Surrealism and indebted in particular to the work of René Magritte and Giorgio de Chirico. All the elements of his mature art are evident in an early painting, ...

Article

Belgian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1948, in Antwerp.

Painter, watercolourist, graphic designer. Figures.

Roger van Akelyn evokes the anguish inherent in the human condition, sometimes using quasi-surrealist imagery.

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Turin.

Painter.

Lorenzo Alessandri, noted for his depictions of scenes of atrocities, was a member of the Surrealist movement.

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born in Turin.

Painter.

Enrico Alimandi trained only in painting. He stayed in Paris in 1928 and was a member of the Futurist movement from 1929 to 1932. He then became interested in Surrealism. He had solo exhibitions of his paintings in Turin (...

Article

Elizabeth Ferrer

Mexican photographer. Álvarez Bravo’s interest in photography began in his adolescence while living in Mexico City in the 1910s, the years of the Mexican Revolution. He left school at the age of 13 to help support his family but pursued his creative interests by studying foreign photography magazines and receiving instruction from the German photographer based in Mexico, Hugo Brehme. Álvarez Bravo’s earliest images, made with a large-format Graflex camera, reflected the romantic pictorialist mode identified with Brehme’s generation. By ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Born 1914; died 1972.

Painter.

Oswald de Andrade was probably the son of the writer and art theorist, Mario de Andrade. His art, which reveals Surrealist lyricism and folkloric fantasy, has been likened to that of Chagall.

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, female.

Born 1913; died 1991.

Painter. Figure compositions.

Symbolism.

European School group.

The wife of Imre Amos, an important representative of the Surrealist trend in Hungary, Margit Anna had virtually the same career in her own painting. In her youth her paintings were in the Post-Impressionist tradition. Chagall's work influenced her with his poetry, linking the memory of childhood and the creation of fantasy. The search for childhood innocence prevails over the inspiration of fantasy, perhaps because the Surrealist model had faded for her with the death of her husband in ...

Article

Hajo Düchting

French poet and writer. He loved to hint at his ‘dark’ origins: he was the illegitimate son of Angélique-Alexandrine Kostrowitzky, an eccentric beauty from a Polish noble family under the protection of the Roman Curia, and Francesco Flugi d’Aspermont, a former officer in the Royal Army of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. When the liaison ended Apollinaire was placed under the wing of the Bishop of Monaco, Monseigneur Theuret, and went through an exciting period of travel and education in Catholic schools on the French Riviera, where his mother had settled. Apollinaire liked to ascribe his genesis to a cardinal or even to Pope Pius IX himself....

Article

Henri Béhar

French writer. He took up writing as a career after studying medicine during World War I. He was mobilized in 1917 at the same time as his friend André Breton, with whom he had contributed poems to Pierre Reverdy’s Nord-Sud. His first critical article, ‘Du décor’, published in ...

Article

Portuguese, 20th century, male.

Born 1934; died 1978.

Painter.

Conceptual Art.

Compared with other Portuguese artists, Antonio Areal was relatively isolated. After a period in which his work was Informel, yet close to the experiments in Surrealism, he wrote an important work on Conceptual Art....

Article

Chilean, 20th century, male.

Born 1913, in La Serena.

Painter.

A painter and a poet, Arénas took part in two Surrealist exhibitions that he organised himself in 1941 and 1948.

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1928, in Braine-le-Comte; died 1974.

Painter.

Marcel Arnould was self-taught and at first painted Surrealist-style abstract pictures. He became a member of the Phases group founded by Édouard Jaguer and Jacques Lacomblez, whose ideas were closely aligned to those of CoBrA. Their aim was to try to 'confront the phases of reality by moving towards the imaginary that surrounds us everywhere'. He took part in the Biennale in Paris in ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1963.

Painter, draughtsman, collage artist, illustrator.

David Aronson, drawn to occultism, paints Surrealistically absurd images, which are sometimes frightening or disturbing. He has produced a set of paintings on the subject of the Holocaust. He also illustrates works for young readers....

Article

Greta Stroeh

French sculptor, painter, collagist, printmaker, and poet of German birth. The son of a German father and French Alsatian mother, he developed a cosmopolitan outlook from an early age and as a mature artist maintained close contact with the avant-garde throughout Europe. He was a pioneer of ...