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Article

British, 20th century, female.

Born 1 December 1904, in Buenos Aires, to a Scottish father and an American mother; died 17 November 1991, in London.

Painter, collage artist.

Surrealism.

London Group, English Surrealist Group.

Eileen Agar trained initially under Leon Underwood, and subsequently under Henry Tonks at the Slade School of Art in London until 1926. Although flirting with Post-Impressionist techniques fashionable at that time, early works such as her ...

Article

Beninese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1964.

Painter (mixed media).

Simplice Ahouansou is self-taught. In a manner that shows affinities with Surrealism, some of his paintings comment with irony on certain aspects of modern Western civilisation, such as communication, or protection of private property, while other works seem more firmly anchored in the artistic traditions of his native country of Benin....

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 1928.

Painter. Scenes with figures.

A follower of the Surrealist painter, Juán Battle Planas, Aizenberg took up experiments in collage undertaken by Max Ernst. He created small pictures that present minuscule figures contemplating the dusk from high terraces in unknown towns in vast landscapes with infinite horizons. He used grey or gilt tonalities, which makes his canvases more intimate and secret....

Article

Horacio Safons

Argentine painter, draughtsman and collagist. He studied under Juan Batlle Planas from 1950 to 1953 and quickly established the terms of his work, rooted ideologically in Surrealism and indebted in particular to the work of René Magritte and Giorgio de Chirico. All the elements of his mature art are evident in an early painting, ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1963.

Painter, draughtsman, collage artist, illustrator.

David Aronson, drawn to occultism, paints Surrealistically absurd images, which are sometimes frightening or disturbing. He has produced a set of paintings on the subject of the Holocaust. He also illustrates works for young readers....

Article

Greta Stroeh

French sculptor, painter, collagist, printmaker, and poet of German birth. The son of a German father and French Alsatian mother, he developed a cosmopolitan outlook from an early age and as a mature artist maintained close contact with the avant-garde throughout Europe. He was a pioneer of ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 16 September 1886, in Strasbourg; died 7 June 1966, in Basel.

Collage artist, engraver, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, poet.

Dadaism.

Der Moderne Bund, Dadaist groups in Zurich and Cologne, Artistes Radicaux, Das Neue Leben, Paris Surrealist Group, Abstraction-Création.

Hans Arp joined the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg in 1902, at the age of 16. In 1903 he began painting and contributed to a local magazine. In 1904 he made his first trip to Paris. From 1905 to 1907 he studied under Ludwig von Hoffmann at the fine arts academy in Weimar, where he attended modern art exhibitions. He returned to Strasbourg, which his family then left for Weggis, on the edge of the Lac des Quatre Cantons in Switzerland. Between 1908 and 1910 he made a second trip to Paris and worked for a time at the Académie Julian. In Weggis he completed his first Abstract compositions and learned the art of modelling. In 1911 he co-founded the group...

Article

Ruth Rosengarten

Portuguese painter, graphic artist, critic and art administrator . In 1947 he was a founder-member of the Grupo Surrealista de Lisboa, with which he exhibited in 1949. By 1952 he was one of the few remaining members of the original group still involved in Surrealism. That year he held a large exhibition with two other artists, showing ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 30 April 1942, in Villefranche-d'Albigeois (Tarn).

Painter, mixed media.

A self-taught artist, Robert Barthez began painting in 1971. He produces abstract canvases with Surrealist leanings, impregnating objects, materials, grasses, leaves, wheels and scrap iron with paint in order to leave marks which he then uses and interprets according to the associations they have for him....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1929, in Neuilly; died 1996, in Paris.

Assemblage artist.

Phases group.

Jean-Louis Bédouin participated in the activities of the Surrealist movement from 1947 and started making assemblages in 1972 which he called 'disoriented objects'; they were made of objects found on the beaches of the island of Oléron. He collaborated with Édouard Jaguer in the ...

Article

Bio Art  

Suzanne Anker

From Anatomical studies to landscape painting to the Biomorphism of Surrealism, the biological realm historically provided a significant resource for numerous artists. More recently, Bio Art became a term referring to intersecting domains that comprise advances in the biological sciences and their incorporation into the plastic arts. Of particular importance in works of Bio Art is to summon awareness of the ways in which the accelerating biomedical sciences alter social, ethical and cultural values in society....

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active from 1937 active in France.

Born 8 March 1904, in Frankfurt am Main; died 1998.

Painter (including mixed media/gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, lithographer.

Surrealist group.

Francis Bott started out as a journalist and art critic, but left his native Germany when the Nazis came to power in 1933. He sought refuge first in Austria, then in former Czechoslovakia. He began painting only in 1936, on the advice of Oskar Kokoschka. In 1937 he moved to Yugoslavia and from there to Paris, where he settled indefinitely. In 1939 he frequented Surrealist circles. On the outbreak of World War II he enlisted in the French army. He spent the war years in exile or serving in the provinces, but returned to Paris in 1944....

Article

Romanian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 15 June 1903, in Piatra Neamt; died 12 March 1966, in Paris.

Painter (including mixed media), watercolourist, pastellist, sculptor, ceramicist, engraver, draughtsman. Figures, portraits, landscapes, animals.

Surrealist group.

Victor Brauner's father ran a sawmill in Piatra Neamt, a small village in the Carpathian mountains in Romania. Brauner said that his childhood was marked by the atmosphere of a 'small village by the edge of a river', where he watched 'giant tree trunks, tied into rafts, on which people lived as they went down the river'. As a child, he witnessed the spiritualist sessions in which his father participated. After a brief stay in Vienna where he began his schooling and a trip down the Danube, he was back in Romania where he was drafted into compulsory work from 1916 to 1918. A pupil at the Braila evangelical school, he developed a passion for zoology and painted in the Belu cemetery in Bucharest. Between 1921 and 1923, he took courses at the fine arts school and the free academy in Bucharest, then spent time by the Black Sea in Falticeni and Balchík, where he painted his 'Cézannian landscapes'. In 1924, he founded the review ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1936, in Boom.

Painter, sculptor of assemblages, installation artist.

Camiel Van Breedam exhibited principally in Belgium, notably in Brussels in 1991. He is not formally aligned with the Surrealists, although their influence suffuses his work, which bristles with strange objects and disturbing images. Van Breedam has also produced what he terms assemblages (assemblies) and environnements (environments)....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1907, in Nantes; died 8 May 1977, in Paris.

Painter (gouache/mixed media), watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator.

Surrealist group.

Attracted by the Surrealist milieu, Camille Bryen gave up telegraphy in Nantes to go to Paris in 1926. Apparently, he was invited by André Breton. In 1927, he published his first collection of poetry, ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 30 June 1906, in Ste-Croix-Hague (Manche); died 1992.

Engraver, collage artist, sculptor, poet.

Revolutionary Surrealism group.

Max Bucaille was inspired by the collages of Max Ernst that he found in old magazines when he was a student at the Sorbonne in the Faculty of Science. He was a mathematics teacher at the lycée in Creteil and published collections of poetry, collages and reproductions of his gouaches in ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Active since 1961 active in France.

Born 26 April 1922, in Haine-St-Pierre; died 27 September 2005, in Paris.

Sculptor, collage artist, photomontage artist, monotype artist, illustrator. Designs for jewellery, monuments.

Kinetic Art.

Groups: Hainaut Surrealist group, Haute Nuit, Madí, CoBrA.

Pol Bury first stayed in France between 1929 and 1932. In 1938 he attended the academy of fine arts in Mons. In 1940 he made his debut in Surrealism with a journal entitled ...

Article

French, 20th century, female.

Born 25 October 1894, in Nantes, France; died 8 December 1954, in Isle of Jersey, UK.

Writer, photographer. Self-portraits, portraits. Photomontages.

Surrealism.

Active in England.

Artist Claude Cahun was born into family of Jewish intellectuals with a rich literary tradition. Cahun devised her pseudonym using the last name of her great uncle Léon Cahun, and her earliest publications demonstrate an interest in Symbolism perhaps instilled by the writings of her uncle, Marcel Schwob. However, through her relationship with life-partner Marcel Moore, the pseudonym of Suzanne Malherbe, she honed her artistic voice. Cahun produced her seminal work, ...

Article

French, 20th century, female.

Born in the Jura.

Painter.

Champion's abstract compositions create a dream-like atmosphere not unrelated to the Surrealist imagination. In 1964, she took part in the exhibition Fifty Years of Collage ( Cinquante Ans de Collages), held at the Musée de St-Étienne and then at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris. She was invited to exhibit at the Salon de Mai, notably in ...

Article

Spanish, 20th century, male.

Born 1908, in Os de Balaguer near Lérida; died 19 August 1998, in Lérida.

Sculptor of assemblages, draughtsman.

ADLAN Group, Paris Surrealist group.

Cristofol, initially apprenticed as a carpenter and cabinet maker, was at the same time learning how to draw, but in fact started off as a sculptor. During the early 1930s he frequented the avant-garde artistic milieux of Barcelona. In ...