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Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1935, in Cincinnati.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, assemblage artist, happenings artist, draughtsman, lithographer, photographer.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

Jim Dine spent his childhood in his father’s painting and plumbing tool shop. He studied at the University of Cincinnati and then at Ohio University, leaving with a Bachelor of Arts in 1957. He also followed courses at Boston Museum School. In 1958 he settled in New York, participating in the birth of Pop Art and, more especially, Happening Art, participating in avant-garde group exhibitions. However, this allegiance to Pop Art has to be moderated to some extent; even though historically he lived this experience, he always added a somewhat poetic, sentimental nuance and retained an attachment to pictorial problems, something that brought him closer to another artist who found himself isolated during this period: Cy Twombly....

Article

Jean E. Feinberg

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, illustrator, performance artist, stage designer and poet. He studied art at the Cincinnati Arts Academy (1951–3) and later at the Boston Museum School and Ohio University (1954–7). In 1957 he married Nancy Minto and the following year they moved to New York. Dine’s first involvement with the art world was in his ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1942, in Turin.

Painter, sculptor, installation artist, performance artist.

Computer Art (Virtual Art).

Gilardi came into favour with the great wave of Pop Art that broke over the USA, but stood apart from it, sympathising more with the exponents of Arte Povera. He creates his ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1 June 1937, in Nashville (Tennessee).

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, performance artist, environmental artist, installation artist, film maker.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

Born Charles Rogers Grooms, the red-headed Red Grooms studied at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (1955...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1930, in Valrico (Florida).

Painter, assemblage artist, happenings artist.

Neo-Pop Art.

Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.).

Alex Hay combined real objects and printed images in the spirit of Pop Art. He produced happenings and wrote experimental theatre pieces. In ...

Article

Julia Robinson

American performance artist and sculptor. Hay started out in the performance scene at Judson Memorial Church in downtown New York City in the early 1960s. He arrived in New York from Florida in 1959, after studying at the Florida State University (1953–8). His wife, the dancer Deborah Hay, was a key figure in the Judson Dance Theater, launched in the summer of ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

English painter, printmaker, photographer, and stage designer. Perhaps the most popular and versatile British artist of the 20th century, Hockney made apparent his facility as a draughtsman while studying at Bradford School of Art between 1953 and 1957, producing portraits and observations of his surroundings under the influence of the Euston Road School and of Stanley Spencer. From ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 13 September 1928, in New Castle (Indiana).

Painter, sculptor. Stage sets, stage costumes, posters.

Pop Art.

Robert Indiana trained at the John Herron School of Art, Indianapolis, in 1945 and 1946, then at the Munson-Williams Proctor Institute, Utica (New York), Art Institute of Chicago from 1949 to 1953, Skowhegan School of Painting (Maine), University of Edinburgh and Edinburgh College of Art, and then in London. Afterward, he travelled to Mexico, Europe, and the interior of the USA. In 1958, he moved to New York and, in 1978, settled in Vinhalven, on an island in Maine....

Article

Mary Emma Harris

American painter, draughtsman, and performance artist. He studied with Josef Albers at Black Mountain College, NC, from 1945 to 1948, where he met John Cage, Merce Cunningham, and Richard Lippold. His collages, paintings, drawings, and performances have been associated with geometric abstraction, Pop art, Neo-Dada, and conceptual art, although they do not fit neatly into any existing categories. Relationship, correspondence, interaction, metaphor, and flux are all themes of Johnson’s work, which reflects an often witty and satirical, but essentially poetic, perception. Delicate collages such as ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 1937, in Southampton.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman. Scenes with figures, figures. Stage sets, stage costumes.

Pop Art.

Allen Jones studied painting at Hornsey College of Art from 1955 to 1959, and from 1960 to 1961 (the intervening year was spent at the Royal College of Art in London). He travelled to Paris in 1958, where he discovered the work of Robert Delaunay. He taught in the USA in the mid-1960s, and then returned to live and work in London. He was elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 1981 and a full member in 1986....

Article

Ulrike Lehmann

French painter, sculptor, performance artist and writer.

He was the son of the Dutch-born painter Fred Klein (b 1898), whose work was representational, and Marie Raymond (b 1908), who developed a reputation in the 1950s as an abstract artist, and whose abstraction was influential on the development of her son’s work. Although he had had no formal art training, he was already making his first serious attempts at painting by ...

Article

Spanish, 20th century, male.

Active from 1966 to 1972 in France, since 1972 in the USA.

Born 1942, in Tarrasa (Catalonia).

Sculptor of assemblages, performance artist.

Pop Art, Eat Art.

Antoni Miralda was a pupil at the school of textiles in Barcelona. In 1962, having been awarded a scholarship by the city of Barcelona, he travelled to Paris, where he worked in fashion photography. In ...

Article

Swedish, 20th century, male.

Active in the United States.

Born 1929, in Stockholm.

Sculptor, painter, mixed media, watercolourist, lithographer, draughtsman, performance artist.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

The son of a Swedish consular official, Claes Oldenburg arrived in the United States with his family in 1929. From 1946 to 1950, he studied art and literature at Yale. After working as a reporter and illustrator, he abandoned journalism in 1952 and attended the Art Institute in Chicago until 1954, exhibiting thereafter in local galleries. In 1956, he settled in New York, where he survived on odd jobs, through which he became familiar with the New York street scene. He met Allan Kaprow, the American artist, art theorist, and main creator of ...

Article

Barbara Haskell

American sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker, performance artist, and writer of Swedish birth. He was brought from Sweden to the USA as an infant and moved with his family to Chicago in 1936 following his father’s appointment to the consulship there. Except for four years of study (...

Article

Marco Livingstone

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, photographer, and performance artist. While too much of an individualist ever to be fully a part of any movement, he acted as an important bridge between Abstract Expressionism and Pop art and can be credited as one of the major influences in the return to favour of representational art in the USA. As iconoclastic in his invention of new techniques as in his wide-ranging iconography of modern life, he suggested new possibilities that continued to be exploited by younger artists throughout the latter decades of the 20th century....

Article

Helen A. Harrison

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, poet and Musician. He was a jazz saxophonist before he was encouraged to take up painting by two artist friends, Jane Freilicher and Nell Blaine (b 1922), who shared his enthusiasm for jazz. After brief service in the US Army Air Corps during World War II (...

Article

Alfred Pacquement

French sculptor, writer, stage designer and film maker. She spent the first 20 years of her life in New York. A self-taught artist, on her return to Europe she began to work in a style similar to art brut. She first came to public attention through the ...

Article

Ingrid Severin

Swiss sculptor, performance artist and writer of Romanian birth. On the death of his father in 1942 he fled with his family to Switzerland, where he was adopted by his uncle Théophile Spoerri in Zurich. In 1950 he began studying classical ballet in Zurich. From ...

Article

Grischka Petri

German painter, sculptor, décollagist, composer, video artist, and performance artist. He was one of the fathers of the European Happening movement. Vostell studied typography, lithography, and painting in Cologne, Wuppertal, Paris, and Düsseldorf (1950–58). In 1959 he married Mercedes Guardado Olivenza in Cáceres, Spain. Early in his career he discovered ...

Article

Julia Robinson

American multimedia and performance artist. Watts was a pioneering figure in the development of Fluxus and Pop art . Before settling squarely into Fluxus, Watts was associated first with both because of his use of ready-made objects, his concern with space-time activation of the work and for the insertion of objects into performance frameworks. Watts was a pioneering figure in the late ...