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Abbasid  

Robert Hillenbrand

Islamic dynasty that ruled from several capitals in Iraq between ad 749 and 1258. The Abbasids traced their descent from al-‛Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, and were thus able to claim a legitimacy that their predecessors had lacked (see Umayyad, §1). The Abbasids rose to power in north-east Iran by channelling disaffection with Umayyad rule, but they soon established their capitals in a more central location, founding ...

Article

Arab calligrapher and illuminator. He began as a house decorator but turned to calligraphy and refined the ‘proportioned script’ developed a century earlier by Ibn Muqla, in which letters were measured in terms of dots, circles and semicircles. An intimate of court circles in Baghdad, Ibn al-Bawwab was appointed librarian to the Buyid ruler Baha’ al-Dawla (...

Article

Karl-Heinz Golzio

Islamic dynasty that ruled parts of the Sahara, Morocco, Algeria and Spain from 1056 to 1147. The Sanhaja Berber chief Yahya ibn Ibrahim, on returning from a pilgrimage to Mecca, founded a reform movement intended to strengthen orthodoxy among the Saharan Berbers, who were only superficially Islamisized, but according to many Arab historiographers they adhered to Kharijite doctrine. With the support of the Malikite jurist Ibn Yasin and the Lamtuna Berber chiefs Yahya ibn ‛Umar and his brother Abu Bakr, a fortress for a Muslim brotherhood (Arab. ...

Article

Amol  

Gordon Campbell

City in northern Iran, close to the Caspian Sea and, from the 11th century to the 13th, centre for the production of a distinctive white slip pottery with incised designs.

Article

Ani  

Lucy Der Manuelian

Site (c. 162 ha) of an Armenian fortified city with religious and secular buildings of the 10th-14th centuries, situated on a high, triangular plateau at the confluence of the Arpa Chay and Alajai Chay Rivers near Kars in eastern Turkey, on the border with Armenia. It was founded as a fortress in the 5th century ...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

Tania Velmans

Monastery situated on a wooded hill 11 km south of Asenovgrad in Bulgaria. It was founded in 1081 ad by the Georgian donors Grigori and Apazi Pakuriani after they had been granted control over extensive lands in the Rodopi Planina mountains by the Byzantine emperor Alexios Komnenos (...

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered....

Article

Buyid  

Robert Hillenbrand

Islamic dynasty that ruled in Iran and Iraq from ad 932 to 1062. Civil wars, the erosion of caliphal power by a Turkish military caste, corrupt administration and racial tensions during the 9th century terminally damaged the Abbasid state, and gradually the extremities of the empire in North Africa, Spain, Central Asia and Afghanistan established a ...

Article

In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ...

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Margaret Mullett, Elizabeth Bruening Lewis, Valerie Nunn, Robin Cormack, Hans Buchwald, W. Eugene Kleinbauer, Marlia Mundell Mango, Lyn Rodley, William Saunders, Robert Ousterhout, Archibald Dunn, Slobodan Ćurčić, Kara Hattersley-Smith, Charles Barber, Christine Kondoleon, Ruth E. Kolarik, Lucille A. Roussin, Henri Lavagne, Margaret A. Alexander, Melita Emmanuel, Alexander Grishin, J.-P. Sodini, T. Zollt, Lucy-Anne Hunt, John Lowden, Manolis Chatzidakis, Nano Chatzidakis, Judith Herrin, Cécile Morrisson, Hero Granger-Taylor, Karel C. Innemée, David Whitehouse, Anthony Cutler, Aimilia Yeroulanou and David Buckton

The art produced by the peoples of the Roman Empire from the early 4th century ad to c. 600—as well as specifically Christian art from c. 250—and that produced in the eastern half of the Empire, centred around Constantinople (Byzantium) to 1453. The Byzantine empire (...

Article

See Macedonian dynasty family

Article

See Macedonian dynasty family

Article

See Macedonian dynasty family

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See Macedonian dynasty family

Article

Fatimid  

Jonathan M. Bloom

Islamic dynasty that ruled in Ifriqiya (now Tunisia) from ad 909 to 972 and in Egypt from ad 969 to 1171. The Fatimids were Isma‛ili Shi‛ites who traced their ancestry back to Fatima, the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad, via Isma‛il, the seventh Shi‛ite Imam. They believed that their rightful position as leaders of the Muslim community had been usurped by the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs. The first Fatimid success was the toppling of the Aghlabid rulers of Ifriqiya in 909. The Fatimid leader ‛Ubayd Allah assumed the title of caliph and the regnal name al-Mahdi (...

Article

Robert Hillenbrand

Islamic dynasty that ruled in Afghanistan, Transoxiana, eastern Iran and northern India from ad 977 to 1186. The founder was Sebüktigin (d 997), a Turkish slave employed by the Samanid dynasty, who eventually defied their authority and set up his own principality with its capital at ...

Article

Margaret Mullett, Elizabeth Bruening Lewis, Valerie Nunn, Robin Cormack, Hans Buchwald, W. Eugene Kleinbauer, Marlia Mundell Mango, Lyn Rodley, William Saunders, Robert Ousterhout, Archibald Dunn, Slobodan Ćurčić, Kara Hattersley-Smith, Charles Barber, Christine Kondoleon, Ruth E. Kolarik, Lucille A. Roussin, Henri Lavagne, Margaret A. Alexander, Melita Emmanuel, Alexander Grishin, J.-P. Sodini, T. Zollt, Lucy-Anne Hunt, John Lowden, Manolis Chatzidakis, Nano Chatzidakis, Judith Herrin, Cécile Morrisson, Hero Granger-Taylor, Karel C. Innemée, David Whitehouse, Anthony Cutler, Aimilia Yeroulanou and David Buckton

In 

See Early Christian and Byzantine art

Article

Margaret Mullett, Elizabeth Bruening Lewis, Valerie Nunn, Robin Cormack, Hans Buchwald, W. Eugene Kleinbauer, Marlia Mundell Mango, Lyn Rodley, William Saunders, Robert Ousterhout, Archibald Dunn, Slobodan Ćurčić, Kara Hattersley-Smith, Charles Barber, Christine Kondoleon, Ruth E. Kolarik, Lucille A. Roussin, Henri Lavagne, Margaret A. Alexander, Melita Emmanuel, Alexander Grishin, J.-P. Sodini, T. Zollt, Lucy-Anne Hunt, John Lowden, Manolis Chatzidakis, Nano Chatzidakis, Judith Herrin, Cécile Morrisson, Hero Granger-Taylor, Karel C. Innemée, David Whitehouse, Anthony Cutler, Aimilia Yeroulanou and David Buckton

In 

See Early Christian and Byzantine art

Article

Margaret Mullett, Elizabeth Bruening Lewis, Valerie Nunn, Robin Cormack, Hans Buchwald, W. Eugene Kleinbauer, Marlia Mundell Mango, Lyn Rodley, William Saunders, Robert Ousterhout, Archibald Dunn, Slobodan Ćurčić, Kara Hattersley-Smith, Charles Barber, Christine Kondoleon, Ruth E. Kolarik, Lucille A. Roussin, Henri Lavagne, Margaret A. Alexander, Melita Emmanuel, Alexander Grishin, J.-P. Sodini, T. Zollt, Lucy-Anne Hunt, John Lowden, Manolis Chatzidakis, Nano Chatzidakis, Judith Herrin, Cécile Morrisson, Hero Granger-Taylor, Karel C. Innemée, David Whitehouse, Anthony Cutler, Aimilia Yeroulanou and David Buckton

In 

See Early Christian and Byzantine art