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Göran Schildt

Finnish architect and designer, active also in America. His success as an architect lay in the individual nature of his buildings, which were always designed with their surrounding environment in mind and with great attention to their practical demands. He never used forms that were merely aesthetic or conditioned by technical factors but looked to the more permanent models of nature and natural forms. He was not anti-technology but believed that technology could be humanized to become the servant of human beings and the promoter of cultural values. One of his important maxims was that architects have an absolutely clear mission: to humanize mechanical forms....

Article

Swedish architect and writer. He graduated from the Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (1914) and from the Kungliga Akademien för de fria Konsterna in Stockholm (1918), before working in the office of Ivar Tengbom. From 1921 to 1924 Ahlberg was a writer for and editor of ...

Article

Claudia Büttner

German painter. He studied in Hamburg under the German painter Arthur Siebelist (1870–1946) in 1900. In 1907 he went to Paris, where he sought contact with French modernism and its protagonists in the Café du Dôme and as a student at the Académie Matisse. His works completed before World War I reflect the colour of Matisse and the fragmented planes of Cézanne (e.g. ...

Article

Swedish architect and writer. While a student at the Kungliga Tekniska Högskola in Stockholm (1915–19), he participated in the Home Exhibition of the Swedish Society of Arts and Crafts at Liljevalchs Konsthall in Stockholm. He worked in the office of Gunnar Asplund (...

Article

José Manuel Fernandes

Portuguese architect, theorist and writer. He studied with Carlos Ramos in the early 1930s and his first significant work was a Modernist pavilion (1937; destr.) for the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne, Paris (1937), a commission he won in competition against ...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 10 March 1871, in Waidhofen-am-Ybbs; died 19 May 1956, in Vienna.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator. Genre scenes. Toys.

Art Nouveau.

Secession group.

Andri studied under Julius Berger and Edouard Lichtenfels at the Venice Academy, then, from 1892, under Claus Meyer at Karlsruhe Academy, before returning to settle in Venice. In ...

Article

Ramón Vargas

Mexican architect, theorist and writer, of Japanese descent. The son of a Japanese ambassador in Mexico, he studied philosophy, espousing neo-Kantianism and becoming politically a socialist. He became a supporter of Functionalism, with its emphasis on the social applications of architecture, and was a founder, with ...

Article

Otakar Máčel

Dutch association of architects, based in Amsterdam from 1927 to 1942. It was founded by six former pupils of the School voor Bouwkunde, Versierende Kunsten en Ambachten in Haarlem: Ben(jamin) Merkelbach, J. H. Groenewegen, Charles Karsten (1904–79), Hans van den Bosch (b...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 17 March 1885, in La Ferté-Vidame (Eure-et-Loir); died 1953.

Painter, ceramicist, glassmaker.

Art Nouveau.

Gabriel Argy-Rousseau studied at the school of ceramics in Sèvres. He participated in the Salon d'Automne between 1920 and 1924, and exhibited glassware and enamel work at the Salon des Artistes Français in ...

Article

Swedish architect and designer. He led the development of Swedish architecture from the classicism characteristic of the period of World War I to the Functionalism of the 1930s. His modern classical style was influential in Nordic countries, but his international reputation was founded on his Modernist work for the Stockholm Exhibition of ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1863, in Beauvais; died c. 1938.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator.

Art Nouveau.

Together with Steinlen and Willette, among others, Georges Auriol belonged to the group of artists who frequented the cabaret Le Chat Noir. He also wrote songs and humorous whimsical pieces. In ...

Article

Jordi Oliveras

Catalan architect . He completed his architectural studies in the School of Architecture of Barcelona in 1905, at a time when Catalan Modernisme was at its peak, although a reaction against it had also begun to appear in the form of Noucentisme. This is reflected in the first period of Balcells’s career, which was his most brilliant. His early designs, the Calado House (...

Article

Libero Andreotti

Italian architect, stage designer and painter . After studying at the Scuola Reale Elisabettiana, an applied arts school in Rovereto, he joined the Futurist movement, headed locally by Fortunato Depero. After serving in World War I, he enrolled at the Scuola Superiore di Architettura del Politecnico, Milan, graduating in architecture in ...

Article

Molly Sorkin

Spanish fashion designer, active in Paris. Based in Paris from 1937 to 1968, Balenciaga was a modernist couturier whose designs ranged from the austere to the romantic. His uncompromising vision was defined by his quest for perfection in cut, proportion and construction. Influenced in part by the historical art and culture of his native Spain, Balenciaga’s style was often ahead of its time even as it slowly evolved over more than 40 years. Balenciaga dressed an élite group of women who understood and appreciated how his designs took shape on the body (...

Article

Roberto Pontual

Brazilian painter. In the first half of the 1940s, while still in his native state of Ceará, he was very active in the introduction of modernist ideas. In 1945 he moved to Rio de Janeiro and in 1946 to Paris, where he spent most of the rest of his life. In Paris, where he studied at the Ecole Supérieure de Beaux-Arts and at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, he first painted landscapes and portraits (e.g. ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1882, in Nantes; died 1932.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator, stylist. Figures, portraits, landscapes. Stage costumes and sets.

Art Deco.

On the suggestion of his friends Lesage and Broca, Georges Barbier studied with Jean-Paul Laurens. He was to work mainly for the theatre and the cinema, designing costumes and sets. He was responsible for Rudolph Valentino's costumes in the film ...

Article

Jean-Louis Cohen

French architect, urban planner and writer . Immediately after his studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, he presented designs for a ‘garden city for intellectuals’ at the Salon d’Automne of 1934. He then entered the Institut d’Urbanisme of the University of Paris, where he was much taken with the teaching of the architectural historian ...

Article

Blanca García Vega

Spanish printmaker, painter and writer . He was self-taught. He belonged to the Generación del 98 and the modernist literary movement. He began engraving in 1901 and won second prize at the Exposición Nacional, Madrid (1906), going on to win first prize in 1908...

Article

Louise Noelle

Mexican architect. As no architectural course was offered in Guadalajara, he entered the city’s Escuela Libre de Ingenieros, graduating in 1924. He then undertook complementary studies to qualify as an architect, but these were cut short by a trip to Europe (1925–6), which included a visit to southern Spain; here he was able to study Spain’s Moorish architectural heritage and to become familiar with the theories of the French writer, painter and landscape architect Ferdinand Bac (...

Article

Kathleen James-Chakraborty

German architect and writer. Bartning studied at the Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe and at the Technische Hochschule and the University in Berlin. In 1905 he established a practice in Berlin. By 1918 he had received c. 50 commissions, but he only began to publish his work after World War I. The upheavals of the period prompted him to propose the spatial and stylistic reorganization of German Protestant church building as a means of restoring social harmony. His book, ...