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Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 16 September 1886, in Strasbourg; died 7 June 1966, in Basel.

Collage artist, engraver, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, poet.

Dadaism.

Der Moderne Bund, Dadaist groups in Zurich and Cologne, Artistes Radicaux, Das Neue Leben, Paris Surrealist Group, Abstraction-Création.

Hans Arp joined the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg in 1902, at the age of 16. In 1903 he began painting and contributed to a local magazine. In 1904 he made his first trip to Paris. From 1905 to 1907 he studied under Ludwig von Hoffmann at the fine arts academy in Weimar, where he attended modern art exhibitions. He returned to Strasbourg, which his family then left for Weggis, on the edge of the Lac des Quatre Cantons in Switzerland. Between 1908 and 1910 he made a second trip to Paris and worked for a time at the Académie Julian. In Weggis he completed his first Abstract compositions and learned the art of modelling. In 1911 he co-founded the group...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 10 July 1888, in Volos (Thessaly); died 20 November 1978, in Rome.

Painter, illustrator, sculptor writer. Scenes with figures, portraits, nudes, animals, landscapes, flowers, still-lifes. Stage sets.

Dadaism, Surrealism, Pittura Metafisica (Metaphysical Painting).

Les Artistes Italiens de Paris.

Giorgio de Chirico’s father, Evaristo, was originally from Palermo, and his mother, Gemma, from Genoa. He was born in Thessaly in Greece, where his father worked as a railway engineer – one of those ‘19th-century European engineers, bearded and powerful’, as Giorgio later described him. This Mediterranean background was an important factor in Giorgio’s development, and classical order and the harsh light of Attica continued to influence his vision, as did his classical education....

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 2 December 1891, in Untermhaus, near Gera (Thuringia); died 25 July 1969, in Oehningen (Lake Constance), Switzerland.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, wood engraver, etcher, lithographer, illustrator. Figure compositions, figures, portraits, landscapes.

Dadaism, Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity).

Berlin Dada.

Otto Dix was the son of a railway worker and was apprenticed to a painter and decorator from 1905 to 1909. Between the ages of 14 and 17 he studied drawing at the school of decorative arts in Gera, then he took courses at the schools of fine arts in Dresden and Düsseldorf from 1910 to 1914, a period during which he spent some time in Berlin. He volunteered as a machine gunner in World War I and was wounded twice....

Article

Ursula Zeller

German painter, draughtsman, and illustrator. He is particularly valued for his caustic caricatures, in which he used the reed pen with notable success. Although his paintings are not quite as significant as his graphic art, a number of them are, nonetheless, major works. He grew up in the provincial town of Stolp, Pomerania (now Słupsk, Poland), where he attended the Oberrealschule, until he was expelled for disobedience. From ...

Article

Romanian, 20th century, male.

Active in Switzerland from 1915 toc.1922, active then naturalised in Israel from 1942.

Born 24 May 1895, in Bucharest, born Marcel Iancu; died 21 April 1984, in Tel Aviv.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator, architect.

Dadaism.

Zurich Dadaist, Artistes Radicaux, Das Neue Leben, New Horizons...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 15 May 1930, in Allendale (South Carolina) or Augusta (Georgia).

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker, mixed media, costume and set designer, illustrator. Encaustic.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

Jasper Johns grew up in South Carolina. He attended courses in art and painting at the University of South Carolina and, in 1948, enrolled in a commercial art school for two semesters in New York City. He served in the US Army for two years during the Korean War but was able to resume his studies at City College in New York in 1953, thanks to the GI Bill. It was at this time that he met his lifelong friend Robert Rauschenberg, the composer John Cage, and the dancer Merce Cunningham. He acted as artistic adviser for Cage and Cunningham’s dance company until 1972, collaborating with painters such as Robert Morris, Frank Stella, Bruce Nauman, and Andy Warhol. He lives and works in New York State and St Martin in the French West Indies. He has been a member of the New York Academy of Arts and Letters since 1988....

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1953, in Leningrad.

Book artist, printmaker (lithography), graphic artist.

Mikhail Karasik graduated with an art-graphics degree from the Leningrad State Pedagogical Institute. He is credited with pioneering the form of the artists’ book in Russia. Not only did he make them, he also encouraged his contemporaries to do so as well by curating numerous exhibitions and organising collective books, for example the ...

Article

French painter, stage designer and illustrator. After studying porcelain painting at the Sèvres factory (1901) and drawing in Paris under the French flower painter Madelaine Lemaire (1845–1928), in 1903–4 she studied at the Académie Humbert in Paris, where she met Georges Braque and Francis Picabia. In ...

Article

John Milner

Russian draughtsman, architect, printmaker, painter, illustrator, designer, photographer, teacher, and theorist.

After attending school in Smolensk, he enrolled in 1909 at the Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt, to study architecture and engineering. He also travelled extensively in Europe, however, and he made a tour of Italy to study art and architecture. He frequently made drawings of the architectural monuments he encountered on his travels. These early graphic works were executed in a restrained, decorative style reminiscent of Russian Art Nouveau book illustration. His drawings of Vitebsk and Smolensk (...

Article

Lithuanian, 20th century, male.

Active and naturalised in the USA.

Born 1931, in Kaunas; died 9 April 1978, in New York.

Happenings artist, performance artist, photographer, mixed media. Artists' books.

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus.

George Maciunas was initially an architect and designer, and he opened a gallery in New York....

Article

Man Ray  

American, 20th century, male.

Active also in France from 1921.

Born 27 August 1890 , in Philadelphia; died 18 November 1976 , in Paris.

Painter (mixed media), collage artist, ready-made and assemblage artist, illustrator, photographer (rayograph), filmmaker.

Dadaism, Surrealism.

Société Anonyme, New York Dada.

According to his somewhat fictionalised autobiography, Man Ray began painting at the age of five and entered the Academy of Fine Art in 1897, an astonishing achievement at the age of seven, unless perhaps it was an extracurricular studio for children. His parents wanted him to be an engineer or an architect, and he began studying industrial design and architecture in 1908. He preferred to work in an advertising agency while attending evening classes in drawing at the Ferrer Center. In 1909, he adopted the pseudonym Man Ray. The New York Armory Show in 1913 contributed to his decision to become an artist. That same year he married a Frenchwoman, Adon Lacroix. He is said to have learnt photography in 1914 with the pioneer of modern photography, Alfred Stieglitz, in order to reproduce his own paintings accurately. He then followed the Gallery 291 exhibitions organised by Stieglitz and the activities of the 291 Group and the magazine ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active 1935-1950 in France and Switzerland.

Born 11 October 1892, in Cologne; died 1970, in Cologne.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator.

Dadaism, Pittura Metafisica (Metaphysical Painting), Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity).

Räderscheidt was a student at the school of applied art in Cologne and at the academy of fine art in Düsseldorf during the period from 1910 to 1914. In 1919, on returning wounded from World War I, he taught drawing in Cologne. His contribution to the Dada movement in Germany was not negligible, and caused him to be hounded subsequently by the Nazis. In 1919, in Cologne, he met Ernst, the brothers H. and A. Hoerle and Otto Freundlich in the ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 6 December 1890, in Calw; died 1955, in Munich.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, engraver, lithographer, draughtsman, illustrator, sculptor. Scenes with figures, figures, portraits, landscapes.

Dadaism, Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity).

Groups: Rihgruppe, Novembergruppe, Berlin Dadaist, Rote Gruppe (Red Group).

Rudolf Schlichter was initially apprenticed as a painter and enameller in a factory in Pforzheim. From 1907 to 1910 he was a pupil at the school of arts and crafts in Stuttgart, then studied as the pupil of Wilhelm Trübner and Hans Thoma at the fine arts academy in Karlsruhe until 1916. After serving during World War I, he returned to Karlsruhe, where he was one of the founders of the ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 1888; died 1973.

Engraver, caricaturist, illustrator. Figures, nudes.

Dadaism.

Clara Tice is one of several Dada women artists who have been neglected by art history. Her work appeared at an exhibition that explored the Dada period in New York, entitled ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 3 March 1893, in San Francisco; died 12 March 1998, in Ojai (California).

Draughtswoman, watercolourist, illustrator, ceramicist, sculptor, writer. Figures, nudes.

Dadaism.

Beatrice Wood studied in Paris before the World War I, at the Académie Julian and the Comédie Française. She moved to Italy with Gordon Craig before returning to New York in ...