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German painter and draughtsman, active also in Italy and Bohemia. One of the foremost painters of the circle gathered at the Prague court of Emperor Rudolf II (see Habsburg, House of family, §I, (10)), he synthesized Italian and Netherlandish influences in his portraits and erudite allegories....

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Italian, 17th – 18th century, male.

Active in Florence.

Sculptor, medallist.

Cited by Zani. Alberghetti would appear to come from a well-known family of artists of the same name who worked from the Renaissance to the end of the 18th century as both casters and sculptors in Ferrara, Florence and Venice (where several were in charge of casting operations at the Artillery)....

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Swiss-Italian architect. He was probably the most important member of a large family group of masons originating from the Swiss canton of Grisons and resident from c. 1600 at Dillingen on the River Danube; Alberthal’s presence there is recorded until 1623. The Protestant parish church at Haunsheim (Swabia, Germany) was built by Alberthal (from ...

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Luciana Arbace

Italian centre of ceramic production. The town, situated near Savona in Liguria, was a flourishing centre of maiolica production during the Renaissance. It was, however, only during the 17th and 18th centuries that a distinctive style developed. Important families in the pottery business included the ...

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Joseph Connors

Italian family of patrons, of German origin. The Hohenems family from Salzburg Italianized their name when Cardinal Marcus Sitticus Altemps (1533–95) brought the dynasty to Rome. A soldier by training, he pursued an ecclesiastical career under the patronage of his uncle, Pope Pius IV (...

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Elena Parma

In 

See Semino family

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Jan Johnson

Italian woodcutter and printer. He was the only printmaker to produce a significant number of chiaroscuro woodcuts in Italy in the second half of the 16th century; he also reprinted chiaroscuro woodblocks originally cut 60 or 70 years earlier. He made at least 35 prints in both black and white and colour (many multiple-sheet), using a sophisticated style of cutting characterized by thin, closed contours. Based in Florence in ...

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Richard Harprath

Italian painter and draughtsman. A leading exponent of late Mannerism at the Gonzaga court in Mantua, he probably trained there with an associate of Giulio Romano. About 80 drawings of the Palazzo del Te and the Palazzo Ducale, Mantua (Düsseldorf, Kstmus.), were commissioned from Andreasi ...

Article

An antiquary (Lat. antiquarius) is a lover, collector and student of ancient learning, traditions and remains. Antiquarianism originated from the revived interest in Classical antiquity during the Renaissance and became a scientific and historical method in the 17th century. The difference between literary and non-literary sources distinguishes humanism from antiquarianism, the latter being based on those tangible remains of antiquity (inscriptions, coins and ruins) related to literary sources. From the 16th century new attitudes towards antiquity were discussed in antiquarian circles, later giving rise to antiquarian societies. Thereafter, antiquarianism was firmly linked to archaeological excavations and to the study and collecting of ancient art. It was also linked to the search for a national identity in the arts and for the origins of Western culture and was sustained by a curiosity about civilizations outside Europe. Antiquarianism, in fact, was associated with the ...

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Leonor Ferrão

Portuguese architect and master mason. He worked in the context of a national tradition marked by Mannerism and the Plain style (see Portugal, Republic of, §II, 2), but he also contributed to the progressive acceptance of new Baroque concepts of space in Portugal, as shown in the use of polygonal plans. He gave a festive and sumptuous treatment to the interiors of his buildings, using inlay of coloured jasper or marble, which is sometimes combined with carved and gilded woodwork (...

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Giorgio Tabarroni

Italian family of patrons and collectors. They were one of the wealthiest and most celebrated patrician families of Milan. The earliest records of them date from 1228, when they made lavish donations to the monastery of Chiaravalle, near Milan. Giuseppe Archinto (i) (d 1476...

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Mario di Giampaolo

Italian painter. His early training was influenced by Bagnacavallo and Venetian painters. His earliest known work, the altarpiece of St Bartholomew Worshipping the Virgin (1570–75; Bologna, S Bartolomeo), is in a Mannerist style, with clear references to the work of Bartolomeo Passarotti, Lorenzo Sabatini and Orazio Samacchini. The austerity of the early Counter-Reformation, introduced in Bologna by Cardinal Gabriele Paleotti, is reflected in the slightly later ...

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Italian painter and draughtsman . His father, Muzio Cesari, was probably a painter; his brother, Bernardino Cesari (1571–1622), became his principal assistant. Giuseppe’s precocious talent for drawing led his mother to take him to Rome in 1581–2, where he became a colour mixer under ...

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T. P. Connor

Term introduced by John Summerson to identify an architectural and decorative style, largely derived from north European Mannerism, adopted by English artisans in the mid-17th century. Lugged architraves, broken pediments, grand and ornate gables, hipped roofs, heavy eaves-cornices and strongly demarcated string courses are among the idiosyncracies and embellishments that typify the style. More through available pattern books and the work of immigrant craftsmen than through travel abroad, English artisans, particularly in London, became increasingly aware during the 1620s and 1630s of recent developments in architectural design on the Continent. They took their ideas from such books as Jacques Francart’s ...

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Thomas Martin

Italian sculptor . After Girolamo Campagna, he was the leading sculptor in Venice at the end of the 16th century and was particularly gifted in working bronze.

Aspetti came from an artistic family: his grandfather Guido Minio (fl 1511–16), called Lazzaro, was a founder, while his uncle ...

Article

E. Luther

German architect–builder . In 1585 he built the towers that give the essential character to Schloss Ratibor at Roth, near Schwabach in Middle Franconia. He is known to have collaborated with Caspar Wallberger (d 1578) and his son Wolfgang Wallberger (c. 1546–1622...

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English courtier, statesman, lawyer, philosopher and writer . He was the younger son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper under Elizabeth I; he was educated at Cambridge and trained as a lawyer at Gray’s Inn, London. He became a member of parliament in 1584; in his political career he enjoyed the patronage of the Queen’s favourite, ...

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Christopher F. Black

Italian family of patrons. The Baglioni are notorious in Renaissance historiography for their often violent attempts to dominate Perugia. The family network, which numbered 28 separate households in 1511, provided political strength until in-fighting brought destruction. Military and political service to the papacy secured the family feudal tenure or governorships of lesser Umbrian towns, such as Bettona, Spello and Torgiano, where they constructed palaces. Besides helping to promote major civic projects in Perugia, such as the cathedral of S Lorenzo (1440s) and the Collegio del Cambio (...

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Marco Carminati

Italian painter and architect . An accomplished exponent of Lombard Mannerism, he was trained in Rome, where in 1566 he was in the employment of Alfonso Gonzaga, the lord of Novellara. On his return from Rome he settled in Novellara and came into contact with Lelio Orsi, whose influence on his art proved fundamental and enduring. Between ...

Article

Claudia Lazzaro

Italian estate near Viterbo, c. 65 km north-east of Rome. It was built for Cardinal Gianfrancesco Gambara, Bishop of Viterbo, from c. 1568, and the design of the whole estate, comprising small twin palaces (palazzine, called casinos in the 17th century), a formal garden and a park, is attributed to ...