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Article

A. A.  

14th – 17th century (?), male.

Initials of a painter and engraver.

Cited by Bartsch and Defer; known for an engraving of Young Satyr and Old Satyr copied from an etching by Marcantonio Raimondi.

Article

German (?), 14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an engraver.

Brulliot made a reference to this artist. His monogram is usually interpreted as A. A. B., but it could also be read as M. B. He left a cartouche, held by two eagles and topped by a ram's head....

Article

A. B.  

German (?), 14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an engraver (stippling).

Brulliot makes a reference to A. B. He produced decorations in gold and silver.

Article

French, 14th – 17th century (?), male.

Active in Troyes.

Monogram of a glass painter.

School of Champagne.

According to Ris Paquot, A. L. B. worked at the church of St-Nizier.

Article

A. M.  

German, 14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of a draughtsman, engraver (wood).

The monogram A. M. is found on an engraving on wood of a View of the Town of Meissen.

Article

German, 14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an engraver.

Article

A. P.  

14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an artist.

Cited by Defer; noted for his Statue of Diana at Ephesus. Probably the same artist as in the preceding entry.

Article

A. V.  

14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an engraver.

Article

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Cistercian abbey in Portugal. The abbey, dedicated to S Maria, was founded as part of the policy of repopulation and territorial improvement of the first king of Portugal, Alfonso I (reg 1139–85), who in 1152 granted a large area of land to St Bernard of Clairvaux by a charter known as the ...

Article

Algarve  

Kirk Ambrose

Southern-most region of mainland Portugal. Its name is derived from ‘the West’ in Arabic. This region has relatively few medieval buildings: devastating earthquakes in 1722 and 1755 contributed to these losses, though many buildings were deliberately destroyed during the Middle Ages. For example, in the 12th century the Almoravids likely razed a pilgrimage church, described in Arabic sources, at the tip of the cape of S Vicente. Mosques at Faro, Silves and Tavira, among others, appear to have been levelled to make room for church construction after the Reconquest of the region, completed in ...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

Italian painter and illuminator. Milanese writers from the humanist Uberto Decembrio (1350–1427) to Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo in the 16th century described Michelino as the greatest artist of his time. He was especially praised for his skill and prodigious talent in the naturalistic portrayal of animals and birds. Records of payments made in ...

Article

Cassone  

Ellen Callmann and J. W. Taylor

Term used for large, lavishly decorated chests made in Italy from the 14th century to the end of the 16th. The word is an anachronism, taken from Vasari (2/1568, ed. G. Milanesi, 1878–85, ii, p. 148), the 15th-century term being forziero. Wealthy households needed many chests, but the ornate ...

Article

Libby Karlinger Escobedo

Illustrated manuscript (Chantilly, Mus. Condé, MS. 597/1424) of the Inferno by Dante Alighieri, probably made in Pisa c. 1345. Dante’s Inferno is the first part of his Divine Comedy, written sometime between 1308 and 1321, in which Dante himself, guided by the Roman poet Virgil, travels through the nine circles of Hell, encountering a variety of notable historical figures guilty of the various sins associated with each successive level. The many surviving manuscripts attest to the popularity of the text; more than 600 copies survive from the 14th century alone, including the Chantilly manuscript....

Article

Gabriele Bartz

South Netherlandish painter. He came from Bruges and is known only through written sources, the earliest of which places him in Paris in 1398, when he dictated instructions on the production of colours to Johannes Alcherius. Alcherius reproduced Coene’s instructions, with information from other French and Italian painters, in a treatise of ...

Article

Maria Cristina Chiusa

Italian sculptor and architect, sometimes confused with Andrea (di Piero) Ferrucci (1465–1526), who was also known as Andrea da Fiesole. The only work that can definitely be attributed to the earlier of the two sculptors is the tomb of Bartolomeo da Saliceto (...

Article

Robert G. Calkins

Franco-Flemish draughtsman. He signed a sketchbook (Berlin, Staatsbib., lib. pict. A 74) consisting of studies of a variety of physiognomic types, occasional drawings of animals and a few more developed scenes of a pilgrimage, an innovative Man of Sorrows, an Annunciation and a Coronation of the Virgin...

Article

Kim W. Woods

South Netherlandish sculptor. The name de Rouppy suggests that he was born in the village of Roupy, near Saint-Quentin in the region of Cambrai. He is first documented among the stone-carvers working on the spire of Cambrai Cathedral in 1375–6. In 1386–7 he was paid a salary of 15 francs a month by ...

Article

M. Smeyers

South Netherlandish illuminator, active in France. He was one of the Netherlandish artists who moved to France to work for the French royal family from the middle of the 14th century. By studying the work of Jean Pucelle and Italian painters he not only evolved his techniques of modelling and rendering of space but also modified the realism characteristic of Netherlandish painting to develop his own more refined style. On ...

Article

J. Steyaert

Netherlandish sculptor, active in France. He was the nephew and follower of Claus Sluter. From his arrival in Dijon in December 1396 he was principal assistant to his uncle on the monumental Calvary group, the Moses Well, commissioned by Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, for the cloister of the Charterhouse in Champmol near Dijon. After Sluter’s death in ...