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Article

A. Gerhardt

Benedictine abbey on the River Enns in Styria, Austria. It was founded in the mid-11th century by Bishop Gebhard from Salzburg, endowed by St Henna von Gurk, Gräfin von Friessach (d 1045), and settled by Benedictine monks from St Peter’s, Salzburg under Abbot Isingrin. The Romanesque minster (consecrated ...

Article

Dutch, 17th century, male.

Born in the Netherlands.

Engraver (line-engraving). Vignettes, frontispieces.

Frans Allen worked first in the Low Countries, then in northern Germany from 1654 and later in Danzig, now Gdansk. There is no trace of the artist after 1685. He generally produced vignettes, frontispieces and a variety of illustrations for different publications....

Article

Alessandro Conti

Italian painter and illuminator. He was a Camaldolite monk; his appointment, from 1470, as Abbot of Agnano, Arezzo, and Val di Castro, Fabriano, was disputed, since he never resided at either abbey. His work is known from a signed triptych of the Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints...

Article

German, 17th century, male.

Active in Heidelberg.

Engraver.

Johann, the brother of Klemens Ammon, worked in Heidelberg and Frankfurt between 1645 and 1654. A publisher of engravings and a bookseller, he and his brother continued the publication of Bibliotheca calcographica after the death of Theodor de Bry....

Article

William Hood

Italian painter, illuminator and Dominican friar. He rose from obscure beginnings as a journeyman illuminator to the renown of an artist whose last major commissions were monumental fresco cycles in St Peter’s and the Vatican Palace, Rome. He reached maturity in the early 1430s, a watershed in the history of Florentine art. None of the masters who had broken new ground with naturalistic painting in the 1420s was still in Florence by the end of that decade. The way was open for a new generation of painters, and Fra Angelico was the dominant figure among several who became prominent at that time, including Paolo Uccello, Fra Filippo Lippi and Andrea del Castagno. By the early 1430s Fra Angelico was operating the largest and most prestigious workshop in Florence. His paintings offered alternatives to the traditional polyptych altarpiece type and projected the new naturalism of panel painting on to a monumental scale. In fresco projects of the 1440s and 1450s, both for S Marco in Florence and for S Peter’s and the Vatican Palace in Rome, Fra Angelico softened the typically astringent and declamatory style of Tuscan mural decoration with the colouristic and luminescent nuances that characterize his panel paintings. His legacy passed directly to the second half of the 15th century through the work of his close follower Benozzo Gozzoli and indirectly through the production of Domenico Veneziano and Piero della Francesca. Fra Angelico was undoubtedly the leading master in Rome at mid-century, and had the survival rate of 15th-century Roman painting been greater, his significance for such later artists as Melozzo da Forlì and Antoniazzo Romano might be clearer than it is....

Article

Flemish School, 17th century, male.

Active in Antwerp.

Illuminator.

Article

German, 17th century, male.

Active in Frankfurt.

Engraver (burin).

A Frankfurt bookseller, Arcerius published a portrait of J. Maccovius which was engraved by van Dalen.

Article

Spanish, 17th century, male.

Illuminator.

Agustín Arroyo worked on the cathedral hymn books in Burgos in 1630.

Article

Phyllis Pray Bober

Italian painter, sculptor, illuminator, printmaker and draughtsman . He was born into a family of painters, and his youthful facility reportedly astonished his contemporaries. His work developed in the Emilian–Ferrarese tradition of Ercole de’ Roberti, Lorenzo Costa the elder and, above all, Francesco Francia. Until the re-evaluation by Longhi, critical assessment of Amico’s oeuvre was over-reliant on literary sources, especially Vasari’s unsympathetic account of an eccentric, half-insane master working so rapidly with both hands (the ‘chiaro’ in one, the ‘scuro’ in the other) that he was able to finish decorating an entire house façade in one day....

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

Patrizia Ferretti

Italian illuminator. He has been praised by art historians since his own times, although many of his autograph works were incorrectly assigned to his workshop. New attributions, supported by archival material, have made it possible to reconstruct his oeuvre and life more accurately. He worked for celebrated patrons and collaborated with the most important illuminators and painters of Florence: ...

Article

German, 17th century, male.

Active in Frankfurtc.1670.

Engraver.

Related to Abraham and Pierre Aubry. He engraved large numbers of plates for booksellers and for his own business (he was a dealer in engravings).

Article

Don Denny

The representation of an author in a volume of his or her writings, usually at the front of the book. Such portraits were made throughout the history of European manuscript illumination, from antiquity to the early Renaissance, and the custom continued, with decreasing artistic significance, into the era of printed books. Compositions similar to those of author portraits were also used to represent translators, especially St Jerome, and scribes. Except for certain works from later periods, manuscript illuminators were seldom aware of the actual appearance of the authors and the term ‘portrait’ is merely a convention....

Article

Isabel Mateo Gómez

Spanish painter, miniaturist, sculptor, architect and writer. He belongs to the Toledan school of the second half of the 16th century. The son of the painter Lorenzo de Ávila, he developed a Mannerist style that is smooth and delicate and derives from his father’s and from that of Juan Correa de Vivar and of Francisco Comontes (...

Article

Flemish School, 17th century, male.

Active in Mechelen.

Born probably 1602.

Painter, illuminator.

Augustin van Avont travelled in Germany before finally settling in Brussels.

Article

Russian, 17th century, male.

Draughtsman, illustrator.

Avramov was employed in the state printing works in Moscow from 1668 to 1676. In 1649, he collaborated with Gregor Blagushin on the illustrations for two books for the Tsar on the life of the miracle-worker St Savva.

Article

17th century, male.

Monogram of an engraver (wood). Frontispieces, vignettes.

Engraver active in Germany; Brulliot refers to his vignettes and frontispieces.

Article

Flemish School, 17th century, male.

Active in Antwerpc.1674.

Illuminator.

Article

Ailsa Turner

Italian painter. Belonging to the generation of Florentine painters that followed Domenico Veneziano and Fra Filippo Lippi, he worked all his life in Florence and kept a notebook of commissions. He experimented with painting techniques, sometimes with unfortunate results. His sense of pattern and decoration was particularly suited to the design of mosaic, intarsia and stained glass....

Article

Sheila Edmunds

German illuminator and printer . He is listed in the Augsburg tax rolls from 1453 as a scribe and from 1477 as a printer. Bämler belonged to the guild of painters, glassmakers, woodcut-makers and goldbeaters, eventually achieving the rank of Zwollfer (director). Examples of his youthful work are two signed miniatures dated ...