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Ayodhya  

B. B. Lal

City in Faizabad District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Located on the right bank of the River Sarayu, it was the capital of the ancient Kosala kingdom, one of whose kings, Rama, is regarded by Hindus as an incarnation of Vishnu.

Excavations in 17 different parts of the ancient mounds have revealed that the first occupation at Ayodhya commenced ...

Article

Bhagwan  

Philippa Vaughan

Indian miniature painter. His career illustrates the difficulties experienced by Hindu artists in adjusting to the demanding patronage of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605). His nine folios in the Dārābnāma (‘Story of Darab’, c. 1580–85; London, BL, Or. 4615) are the largest group by a single artist, indicating that he must have worked on the ...

Article

Philippa Vaughan

Indian miniature painter. A Hindu, he was a lesser artist active throughout the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605). He worked on two folios in the Ṭūṭīnāma (‘Tales of a parrot’, c. 1567, alternatively dated 1556–60; Cleveland, OH, Mus. A., 62.279) and thus would have participated in producing the ...

Article

Philippa Vaughan

Indian miniature painter. A Hindu, he is best known for his copies and adaptations of European prints, of which the most famous is St Matthew the Evangelist. Signed Kesu Das and dated ah 996 (ad 1587–8), this is based on an engraving by Philip Galle after Maarten van Heemskerck. Kesu Das’s understanding and transformation of European techniques in rendering volume and space made a decisive contribution to the evolution of the studio under the Mughal emperor ...

Article

Milo Cleveland Beach

Indian miniature painter. His name indicates that he was a Hindu. According to Abu’l-Fazl, writing in the Ā’īn-i Akbarī, the annals of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605), Daswanth was the son of a palanquin-bearer (kahār) who worked in the royal workship. He was a favourite artist of the emperor ...

Article

Dhannu  

Philippa Vaughan

Indian miniature painter. A Hindu, he was established in the studio of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605) by the early 1580s and thus would have worked on the Hamzanāma (‘Tales of Hamza’; c. 1567–82; alternatively dated 1562–77). His five compositions in the ...

Article

Philippa Vaughan

Indian miniature painter. A Hindu, he was 13th of the 17 artists listed in the Āyin-i Akbarī, a contemporary account of the administration of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605) as it was c. 1590. As he was established by the 1580s, probably having worked on the ...

Article

Mukhlis  

Hindu School, 16th century, male.

Painter.

Mukhlis belonged to the school of artists around for Akbar the Great (1556-1605) and illuminated parts of the Razmnama, Baburnama, Akbarnama and Darabnama manuscripts.

Article

Mukund  

Hindu School, 16th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 16th century.

Illuminator.

Mukund worked at the court of Emperor Akbar the Great (1556-1605), collaborating on the Akbarnama. The Razmnama includes his Torture of the Condemned in Hell.

Article

Ram  

Hindu School, 16th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 16th century.

Painter, illuminator.

Ram collaborated on the Razmnama and the Timurnama manuscripts.

Article

Ramdas  

Hindu School, 16th – 17th century, male.

Painter, illuminator.

Ramdas was executed illuminations in several manuscripts now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

London (Victoria and Albert Mus.)

Article

J. Marr

Island off the south coast of Tamil Nadu, India. Linked to the mainland by a causeway, Rameswaram is sacred to Hindus because of its legendary connections with the god Rama. The principal temple is the Ramalingeshvara, an extensive complex at the northern end of the island. Although the temple was founded by the ...

Article

Sanwlah  

Hindu School, 16th – 17th century, male.

Active between 1556 and 1605.

Painter, illuminator.

Sanwlah collaborated on all the great works produced during the reign of Akbar the Great (1556-1605).

London (British Mus.): miniatures

London (Victoria and Albert Mus.): miniatures

Article

City on the Kaveri River c. 400 km south-west of Madras in Tamil Nadu, India. An important Hindu religious centre since the 7th century ad, it is dominated by an immense granite rock some 85 m high, on the summit of which is a modern shrine dedicated to the elephant-headed god Ganesha. Hewn into the rock on the south side are two caves, the uppermost dating from the time of the Pallava king Mahendravarman I (...