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Besakih  

D. J. Stuart-Fox

Balinese Hindu temple (pura) complex. It is situated on the south-western flank of the volcano Gunung Agung, Bali’s highest mountain, in the north-east of the island. Associated probably since prehistoric times with the Lord of the Mountain, now identified with the Hindu god Shiva, it has been a dynastic temple of several royal families since at least the 15th century. The complex consists of 22 temples, spread along three parallel ridges over a distance of more than a kilometre. The complex was not planned as an entity but seems to have been constructed piecemeal, and the overall structure that links the temples is more ritual and symbolic than physical. The annual cycle of more than 70 rituals culminates in the enormous centennial Ekadasa Rudra ceremony....

Article

Philippa Vaughan

Indian miniature painter. A Hindu, he is best known for his copies and adaptations of European prints, of which the most famous is St Matthew the Evangelist. Signed Kesu Das and dated ah 996 (ad 1587–8), this is based on an engraving by Philip Galle after Maarten van Heemskerck. Kesu Das’s understanding and transformation of European techniques in rendering volume and space made a decisive contribution to the evolution of the studio under the Mughal emperor ...

Article

Philippa Vaughan

Indian miniature painter. A Hindu, he was 13th of the 17 artists listed in the Āyin-i Akbarī, a contemporary account of the administration of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605) as it was c. 1590. As he was established by the 1580s, probably having worked on the ...

Article

Hindu School, 17th century, male.

Painter.

Mirza Ghulam belongs to the transitional period between the schools of artists around Akbar the Great (1556-1605) and Jahangir.

Article

Hindu School, 17th century, male.

Active during the first half of the 17th century.

Illuminator.

In 1610, Rahman Quli collaborated on the Anvar i Suhaili, now in the British Museum.

London (British Mus.): illuminations

Article

Ramdas  

Hindu School, 16th – 17th century, male.

Painter, illuminator.

Ramdas was executed illuminations in several manuscripts now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

London (Victoria and Albert Mus.)

Article

J. Marr

Island off the south coast of Tamil Nadu, India. Linked to the mainland by a causeway, Rameswaram is sacred to Hindus because of its legendary connections with the god Rama. The principal temple is the Ramalingeshvara, an extensive complex at the northern end of the island. Although the temple was founded by the ...

Article

Hindu School, 17th century, female.

Active between 1605 and 1627.

Painter.

London (Victoria and Albert Mus.): King Shah Tamasp (miniature)

Article

Hindu School, 17th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 17th century.

Painter.

Salim Quli painted two miniatures in the Lights of Canopus ( Anvari i Suhaili) manuscript, now in the British Museum, London.

Article

Sanwlah  

Hindu School, 16th – 17th century, male.

Active between 1556 and 1605.

Painter, illuminator.

Sanwlah collaborated on all the great works produced during the reign of Akbar the Great (1556-1605).

London (British Mus.): miniatures

London (Victoria and Albert Mus.): miniatures

Article

City on the Kaveri River c. 400 km south-west of Madras in Tamil Nadu, India. An important Hindu religious centre since the 7th century ad, it is dominated by an immense granite rock some 85 m high, on the summit of which is a modern shrine dedicated to the elephant-headed god Ganesha. Hewn into the rock on the south side are two caves, the uppermost dating from the time of the Pallava king Mahendravarman I (...