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B. B. Lal

City in Faizabad District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Located on the right bank of the River Sarayu, it was the capital of the ancient Kosala kingdom, one of whose kings, Rama, is regarded by Hindus as an incarnation of Vishnu.

Excavations in 17 different parts of the ancient mounds have revealed that the first occupation at Ayodhya commenced ...



Heather Elgood

Group of Hindu temples of the 10th century ad, 45 km south-west of Kota in Rajasthan, India. Despite some damage, the three Baroli temples are among the finest examples of the Gurjara–Pratihara style in western India. Construction was begun in the mid-9th century. The best preserved is the ...


Michael D. Rabe

Site of a Hindu cave temple complex 140 km north-west of Nellore in Andhra Pradesh, India. Isolated between the precipitous red cliffs of a box canyon, the site comprises eight small and remarkably similar caves excavated from a single rock face above a stream. Datable by style and epigraphy to the 7th century ...


R. Soekmono

Hindu temple site, 1800 m above sea-level in Central Java. Volcanic activity in the area led to the creation there from the 8th century ad of temples for the worship of the ancestors, who were deified and identified with the Hindu god Shiva. The site’s name is derived from Old Javanese ...



M. E. Heston

Temple site in Alleppey District, southern Kerala, India. It is known for two Hindu temples: the Mahadeva Temple of the late 10th century ad and an earlier rock-cut shrine dedicated to Shiva. The latter is of unknown date, although it is believed to pre-date the Kulashekhara dynasty (...



Walter Smith

Site of a Hindu temple sacred to the sun god Surya, on India’s eastern coast about 48 km south-east of Bhubaneswar, Orissa. The 13th-century temple marks the climax of the temple building tradition of Orissa (anc. Kalinga) both in its grandiose monumentality and in the quality and extent of its sculptural decoration. Some scholars have suggested, on the basis of local legends, that the Surya Temple was built on the site of an earlier temple dedicated to the sun god. While not archaeologically verified, the legends indicate that Konarak was sacred to Surya earlier than the ...


Perween Hasan

Hill area some 8 km west of Comilla, Bangladesh. It was a centre of Buddhist culture and of extensive building activity in the 6th–13th centuries. Coins, inscriptions and other evidence provide the names of Hindu and Buddhist dynasties that ruled the region: the Khadgas, Devas, kings of Harikela, Chandras, Varmans and Senas. Among the forty-seven archaeological sites are the ruins of seven monasteries, five large shrines and a palace. The earliest dated site is the 8th-century Buddhist monastery and cruciform shrine of Salban Vihara....


J. Marr

Temple site on a high plateau overlooking the Kashmir Valley, Jammu and Kashmir, India. The Surya Temple, built by the Karkota king Lalitaditya (reg c. ad 724–c. 760) is the earliest surviving Hindu temple in Kashmir. The main shrine, measuring some 19×11 m, stands on a high plinth in a rectangular colonnaded court (80.5×52 m) surrounded by 84 small shrines. This layout, together with the use of tall ribbed pillars and pilasters in the entrance porch and the repeated motif of a trefoil arch within a triangular pediment, gives a strong feeling of Bactrian Hellenistic influence. Indeed, the earlier Buddhist monasteries of the region were directly influenced by the architecture of Gandhara and Bactria, and the style remained current in both Buddhist and Hindu buildings in Kashmir until the 13th century ...



Donald M. Stadtner

Site in Raipur District, Madhya Pradesh, India. It is noted for its Hindu and Buddhist monuments of the 7th century ad. The principal shrine is the Lakshmana Temple, a brick temple with a large sandstone sanctum doorway bearing a reclining image of Vishnu on the lintel and smaller images of his various incarnations (...



Kalyan Kumar Chakravarty

Hindu temple site 25 km south of Bilaspur in Madhya Pradesh, India. It was excavated and cleared by Kalyan Kumar Chakravarty for the Madhya Pradesh Department of Archaeology and Museums. Its two temples, known as Jethani and Deorani (or Devarani), are datable respectively to the late ...