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Article

John N. Lupia

Type of ewer, usually of metal, used for the washing of hands in a liturgical or domestic context. It is often zoomorphic in form and usually has two openings, one for filling with water and the other for pouring. In their original usage aquamanilia expressed the symbolic significance of the lavabo, the ritual washing of the hands by the priest before vesting, before the consecration of the Eucharist and after mass. The earliest production of ...

Article

Árpád  

János M. Bak

Modern term for the dynasty that ruled Hungary until 1301. Their name is derived from the chief of the Magyar tribal alliance, Prince Árpád (reg 896–907). During the four centuries of their reign (which included 5 princes and 21 kings, half of whom were buried in the now destroyed basilica at Székesfehérvár), the country became a Christian kingdom with a social and political order similar to its western neighbours. The art and architecture of the age was influenced mainly by Italian and French models with some Byzantine elements. The castle (after ...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

Charles Buchanan

Type of large-format Bible, usually found in pandect (single-volume) form, produced in central Italy and Tuscany from around 1060 to the middle of the 12th century. They came out of the efforts of a reformist papacy intent on wresting control over ecclesiastical investiture from the Holy Roman Emperor. The Giant Bibles were produced in reformed canonries and monasteries and then exported to the same, not only in Italy but throughout Europe....

Article

Virginia Davis

Religious order that developed in western Europe from the mid-11th century, when groups of priests began to live a communal life devoted to poverty, celibacy and obedience, following the Rule of St Augustine. Independent congregations that followed the Rule included the Premonstratensian Canons and the ...

Article

Tania Velmans

Monastery situated on a wooded hill 11 km south of Asenovgrad in Bulgaria. It was founded in 1081 ad by the Georgian donors Grigori and Apazi Pakuriani after they had been granted control over extensive lands in the Rodopi Planina mountains by the Byzantine emperor Alexios Komnenos (...

Article

Bernard  

French, 11th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects.

A monk, this artist was active in Beaulieu, Limousin. Between 1005 and 1008 he painted in the oratory of the monastery: The Annunciation; The Visitation; The Birth of Jesus; The Presentation in the Temple and The Adoration of the Magi...

Article

Bernard  

Flemish School, 11th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects.

This artist painted pictures for the abbey church of Lobbes.

Article

Maylis Baylé

Former Benedictine abbey church in Normandy, France. The oldest Romanesque church in Normandy, Bernay was founded by Judith de Bretagne (d 1017) after 1008, the date of her marriage to Richard II, Duke of Normandy. Completed by the mid-11th century, it had an aisled nave of seven bays, projecting transepts with an eastern apsidal chapel on each arm, and three eastern apses; both the choir and the nave were wooden-roofed. The church (originally ...

Article

11th century, male.

Miniaturists. Religious subjects.

These artists worked in Byzantium around 1000 and were two of the eight artists responsible for the famous Martyrology written for Emperor Basil II (979-1025). This life of the saints of the Greek Church has 430 miniatures and is preserved in the Vatican Library....

Article

Carmela Vircillo Franklin

German historian of antiquity and the Middle Ages, active also in Italy and America. Bloch was trained at the University of Berlin under the historian of ancient Greece Werner Jaeger, art historian Gerhart Rodenwaldt and medievalist Erich Caspar from 1930 until 1933, when the rise of National Socialism convinced him to move to Rome. There he received his ...

Article

Bobbio  

Michael Richter

Monastery in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Approximately 50 km south of Piacenza in the Apennines, it was founded c. ad 613 through the cooperation of the Lombard king Agilulf (reg 590–615) and the Irish abbot and saint Columbanus (c. 540–615). Its nucleus was an older dilapidated church dedicated to St Peter. Columbanus died on 23 November 615, but his name and renown remained alive in the following centuries. Through cooperation with the Lombard monarchs as well as later the Carolingian kings, Bobbio became a very prominent monastery in Northern Italy. In 628 it was granted the earliest monastic exemption from supervision by the local diocesan, the bishop of Tortona. The community of Bobbio apparently lived according to the Rule of Columbanus as well as the Rule of Basil of Caesarea. The presence of the Rule of St Benedict cannot be documented there before the early 9th century. Bobbio became a known not only as a centre of Irish learning but also as a centre of grammatical as well as computational studies. Its early library also contained Classical texts as well as important palimpsests (a ‘catalogue’ survives from the late 9th century). In the late 9th and early 10th centuries (a period of economic decline) important illuminated manuscripts were produced there. The abbatial church was rebuilt under Abbot Agilulf (...

Article

Bonizzo  

Italian, 11th century, male.

Active in Rome at the beginning of the 11th century.

Painter. Religious subjects.

School of Rome.

An inscription indicates that this artist painted the frescoes in the church of S Urbano alla Caffarella, near Rome (1011).

Article

Nigel Gauk-Roger

Religious order of hermit-monks.

The Order was founded by St Romuald (c. 950–1027; can 1595), a Benedictine monk from Ravenna, who wanted to return to the purity of St Benedict’s original ideas (see Benedictine Order, §1) and combine an austere form of monastic community with the mystical simplicity of the hermit’s life. In ...

Article

Don Denny

Numerical list of concordant passages in the Gospels, devised in the early 4th century by the historian Eusebios of Caesarea. Such tables indicate passages to be found in all four Gospels, those found in two or three of the Gospels and those unique to a particular Gospel. In medieval manuscripts they appear as a series of pages, varying from seven to as many as nineteen, placed at the front of Gospel books and often included, preceding the Gospels, in full ...

Article

M. Guardia

Former collegiate church in Catalonia, Spain. The first reference to a church dedicated to St Vincent in Cardona Castle dates to ad 980. By the end of the century the canons were already following the rule established at Aachen, but the crucial stage in the church’s development took place under ...

Article

Brenda M. Bolton

Monastic order founded in 1084 by St Bruno (c. 1030–1101; can 1514), a canon of St Cunibert in Cologne. The Order took its name from that of the mountainous site of the mother house at La Grande Chartreuse in the diocese of Grenoble (Isère). The Order has never been reformed; such continuity over more than 900 years is unique. The way of life of the first Carthusians, characterized by total dedication to contemplation through silence, assiduous prayer, poverty, penance, and almost continuous occupancy of a solitary cell, impressed contemporaries with its novelty. Bruno set out to deepen the essential ideals of monasticism through the strictest separation from the world, combined with an intense desire to set aside time for God (‘vacare Deo’). His followers led an eremitical life, inspired by biblical models and the Fathers of Egypt and Palestine, but partially tempered by cenobitism, which allowed for the practicalities of survival in the particularly harsh environment chosen by the Order. The early Carthusians did not represent a criticism of established Benedictine monasticism (...

Article

Neil Stratford

Cluniac abbey, then priory church dedicated to SS Stephen and Fortunatus, in Loire, France. Founded by ad 875 (not 872) in the diocese of Mâcon, the abbey was given to Abbot Odo of Cluny in 932 by Pope John XI; it was reduced to the rank of a priory in the mid-11th century. The priory was suppressed in ...

Article

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born in Yancheng (Henan).

Painter. Religious subjects, figures, scenes with figures.

Song dynasty.

Chen Yongzhi was a member of the Imperial Painting Academy during the Tiansheng period (1023-1032). A skilful artist, he painted Buddhist and Taoist as well as secular figures and was esteemed for his close attention to detail....

Article

Peter Diemer

Church near Lecco, in Lombardy, Italy. It is famous for its Romanesque stucco and painted decoration. The first reference to a Benedictine monastery at Civate occurs in a Liber confraternitatum of Pfäfers Abbey of c. 845, which lists the names of 35 monks. According to legend, the monastery was founded by ...