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Article

Italian, 13th – 14th century, male.

Born in Siena; died 1350.

Sculptor. Religious subjects. Statues, monuments.

Sienese School.

Agostino di Giovanni was a product of the Pisani School. He married in 1310 and had two sons, Giovanni and Domenico, who were chosen as 'capomaestri' for the construction of Siena Cathedral. He often worked with the former....

Article

Alberto  

Italian, 13th century, male.

Active in Pisa.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Pisan School.

Morrona identifies as his a painting for the high altar of the church of S Francesco, Pisa.

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Active in Modena.

Sculptor. Religious subjects.

The son of Anselme and the nephew of Arrigo, Alberto da Campione was employed as an architect in the building of Modena Cathedral until after 1244.

Article

Carl D. Sheppard

Town in Elis, Greece, 55 km south-west of Patras. As Andreville it was the unfortified capital of the Frankish principality of the Morea from the 13th to the 15th century. Andravida, the strongly fortified port of Clarence (modern Killini), and Chlemoutsi Castle formed a triangle at the north-western tip of the Peloponnese designed to control the hinterland and the sea lanes. The only physical evidence of the Franks at Andravida are the remains of the Roman Catholic Cathedral of Hagia Sophia, in which Prince Geoffrey Villehardouin I and his barons met to determine policy and justice....

Article

Angelus  

Italian, 13th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Venetian School.

Of Venetian origin. An Behold the Man ( Ecce Homo) in the Byzantine style is signed Angelus painted this ( Angelus pinxit).

Venice (Mus. Correr): Ecce homo (signed)

Article

John N. Lupia

Type of ewer, usually of metal, used for the washing of hands in a liturgical or domestic context. It is often zoomorphic in form and usually has two openings, one for filling with water and the other for pouring. In their original usage aquamanilia expressed the symbolic significance of the lavabo, the ritual washing of the hands by the priest before vesting, before the consecration of the Eucharist and after mass. The earliest production of ...

Article

Árpád  

János M. Bak

Modern term for the dynasty that ruled Hungary until 1301. Their name is derived from the chief of the Magyar tribal alliance, Prince Árpád (reg 896–907). During the four centuries of their reign (which included 5 princes and 21 kings, half of whom were buried in the now destroyed basilica at Székesfehérvár), the country became a Christian kingdom with a social and political order similar to its western neighbours. The art and architecture of the age was influenced mainly by Italian and French models with some Byzantine elements. The castle (after ...

Article

Debra Higgs Strickland

Richly illustrated bestiary manuscript (275×185mm, 105 fols; Oxford, Bodleian Lib., Ashmole 1511), written in Latin and illuminated probably in southern England around 1210. The original patron is unknown. It contains the text and illustrations of a complete bestiary, with prefatory Creation scenes and excerpts from Genesis and part of Hugh de Folieto’s ...

Article

Asinou  

Susan Young

Byzantine church in Cyprus, situated on the west side of the island, 4 km south-west of the village of Vizakia. The church was originally part of the monastery of the Phorbia (destr.), and a marginal note in a synaxarion copied in Cyprus or Palestine in ...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

French, 13th century, male.

Born in St-Jean-d'Angély.

Sculptor. Religious subjects.

This artist's name appears on the base of a large relief showing the Scene of the Crucifixion, above the porch of the church of St-Hilaire in Foussais, Vendée.

Article

Meredith J. Gill

A religious order of mendicants brought together under the Rule of St Augustine (see Augustinian Canons) by the papal bull Licet Ecclesiae of 1256. The Order spread throughout urbanized western Europe, and included lay people in addition to priests and nuns. Its primary goals remain the ministry of souls, the pursuit of learning and the formulation of church policy. The growth of Observant reform congregations from the mid-14th century and during the Reformation (...

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects.

We read in Muratori that Bainlardis says in an inscription that he painted a Madonna in 1249 in the abbey church of Nardo, near Gallipoli. This painting no longer exists, but the church, which later became the cathedral, still has a painted fragment that was probably part of this painting....

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects.

One of the first painters known to have worked in Florence, Bartolommeo is thought to have painted The Annunciation in S Annunziata.

Article

J. E. Ziegler

Groups of lay women leading a particular form of communal religious life. They flourished especially in the urban centres of the southern Low Countries between the 13th and 18th centuries.

The Beguines emerged at the end of the 12th century, first in the southern Low Countries and the Rhineland, and then in southern France and central and northern Italy, the most advanced urban areas of Europe. The term initially designated any woman who was not a nun but who lived either alone or in a group, dedicating herself through chastity, poverty, and charity to a religious life. During the 13th century, however, the usage became more specific and denoted women who lived in communities, known as ...

Article

Géza Entz

Cistercian church and abbey in the county of Heves, northern Hungary. It was founded in 1232 by Cletus, Bishop of Eger, as an Eigenkloster (Ger.: ‘personal foundation’) of the aristocratic Bél family. The three-aisled towerless basilica with three straight-ended eastern chapels and a transept was completed in two campaigns in the second quarter of the 13th century, with the usual characteristics of Cistercian construction and details. Its original state is visible in the striped west front, the north transept façade and the east wall of the sanctuary. Cistercian detailing is particularly evident in the west portal, the engaged piers of the south aisle, the vaulting ribs, the rose window and the aumbry....

Article

Nicola Coldstream

Premonstratensian abbey in Cyprus dedicated to the Virgin Mary. The abbey was founded in 1206 by Thierry, Archbishop of Nicosia, the foundation being confirmed by Pope Gregory IX in 1232. Of the buildings, the church and two ranges round the cloister substantially remain; the western range was looted for building materials. Bellapais is built of limestone on a precipitous hillside facing north, with the conventual buildings north of the church, heavily buttressed against the slope of the hill....

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Born in Foligno.

Painter. Religious subjects.

In 1265 this artist painted in the Chapel of the Virgin in S Clara, Assisi.

Article

Berende  

Tania Velmans

Village c. 40 km north of Sofia in Bulgaria. It is famous for its Byzantine church dedicated to St Peter. Built on the edge of the River Nishava, the church has a single nave (4.50×8.50 m) and contains on the west façade fragments of a donor inscription referring to King ...

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects.

The son of Berlinghiero Berlinghieri and brother of Bonaventura Berlinghieri, this artist worked in Lucca around 1240 to 1244.