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Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Active in the first half of the 14th century, during the Yuan dynasty.

Painter.

Bo Ziting was a Buddhist painter from Jiading (Jiangsu) who painted rocks and flowers.

Article

Masatomo Kawai

Japanese Zen monk, scholar, calligrapher, poet and painter. He began his training as a monk at Nanzenji in Kyoto, under Shun’oku Myōha, the nephew and disciple of Musō Sōseki, one of the leading Zen prelates of the Muromachi period (1333–1568). His other teachers included the Zen recluse Shakushitsu Genkō and Gidō Shūshin, under whom he studied literature. A trusted adviser of the fourth Ashikaga shogun, Yoshimochi, Gyokuen was appointed to the prestigious abbacies of Kenninji (...

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Born in Qiantang (Zhejiang).

Monk-painter.

Ding Qingji was a Taoist monk who painted portraits of Buddhist and Taoist figures in the styles of Li Song and Ma Lin.

Article

Eiga  

Japanese, 14th century, male.

Active 1350-1395.

Painter.

Eiga specialised in Buddhist painting and is one of the earliest representatives of Muromachi ink painting. The honorific title ‘hogen’ was bestowed on him.

He probably painted the Portrait of Prince Shokotu before 1351, a work that has since disappeared, whilst his ...

Article

Yan Hui  

Chu-Tsing Li

Chinese painter . He was a painter of Buddhist and Daoist figures, ghosts and landscapes, who was well respected as a painter by the literati by the end of the Song period (960–1279). Of some 35 paintings attributed to him, only a few can be considered to be genuine; among these, the best known are those mounted as a pair of hanging scrolls (ink and colour on silk; Kyoto, Chion’in) depicting two Daoist immortals, Li Tieguai and Liu Haichan, both of which are executed in the extremely realistic style for which Yan is known. There is special attention to physiognomy—to the point of grotesqueness—to volume and to modelling of the body, and to the strong contrast between light and dark areas. Both works also include a misty landscape that serves as a background to the figures, a feature derived from landscape painting of the Southern Song period (...

Article

Joseph D. Parker

Japanese Zen abbot and calligrapher. It is to Daitō Kokushi (‘national teacher Daitō’) that the abbots of virtually all modern Japanese Rinzai Zen temples trace their religious heritage, and he was one of Japan’s foremost monk–calligraphers. Daitō took monastic orders as a youth and at the age of about 21 became a disciple of ...

Article

Junghee Lee

Korean dynasty that ruled from ad 918 to 1392. The Koryŏ kings were lavish in their patronage of Buddhist art of the major groups such as Sŏn and Kyo (see Buddhism, §III, 9). Wang kŏn, posthumously known as King T’aejo (reg ad...

Article

Chinese, 13th – 14th century, male.

Activec.1270-1300.

Born in Zhongshan (Hebei).

Painter.

Liu Guandao painted landscapes, portraits and religious (Buddhist and Taoist) figures. In 1279 he was commissioned to paint the portrait of Kublai Khan.

Beijing (Palace Mus.): Immortals Celebrating the Birthday of Xi Wangmu...

Article

Nicole Fabricand-Person

Japanese Zen monk and painter. Active during the Muromachi period (1333–1568), he became superintendent in charge of the monastic buildings and the head of a leading painting workshop at the temple Tōfukuji in Kyoto at a time when Chinese ink-painting techniques, brought to Japan by Buddhist monks from the 13th century onwards, were being adapted by Japanese artists (...

Article

Myotaku  

Japanese, 14th century, male.

Born 1308, in Mino; died 9 October 1388, in Kyoto.

Monk-painter.

Myotaku was a painter of the suiboku (ink painting) school. He lived in the Kokusei-ji Monastery in Kyoto and specialised in Buddhist subjects. He was a student of Muso Kokushi and came under the influence of Mushi and Yen Hui....

Article

Onjōji  

Mimi Hall Yiengpruksawan

Buddhist temple in the city of Ōtsu, Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Onjōji occupies c. 79 ha at the southern foot of Mt Hiei, near the south-western shore of Lake Biwa. It is the head temple of the Jimon branch, one of the two major branches of the Tendai sect of Esoteric Buddhism (...

Article

Cecil H. Uyehara

Japanese prince, Buddhist monk, poet and calligrapher. He was the sixth son of Emperor Fushimi and the half-brother of the emperors GoFushimi (reg 1289–1301) and Hanazono (reg 1308–18), all of whom were excellent calligraphers. He began his Buddhist training at the age of 11 at the temple of Shōren’in in Kyoto, took his vows at 13 and later served three times as abbot there. He studied the calligraphy of Fujiwara no Kōzei (...

Article

Masatomo Kawai

Japanese painter and Zen monk. Although he was not a professional artist and painted as part of his religious austerities, Kaō is one of the most important suibokuga (‘ink painting’) painters of his age (see Japan, §VI, 4, (iii)). He began his religious training at Kenchōji in Kamakura. In ...

Article

Bruce A. Coats

Japanese Zen master, poet, scholar and garden designer. As spiritual adviser to both Emperor GoDaigo (reg 1318–39) and the military leaders who overthrew him, Musō was politically influential and acted as mediator during the civil wars of the 1330s. At various times in his life Musō served as abbot of Nanzenji, one of the various Gozan (Five Mountains) Zen monasteries including Nanzenji in Kyoto (...

Article

See Takuma family

Article

Ken Brown

School of Japanese specialists in Buddhist painting (ebusshi), which flourished from the late Heian (ad 794–1185) to early Muromachi (1333–1568) periods. It rivalled the Kose school of ebusshi in Nara, specialists in refined, decorative Buddhist painting. The school was supposedly founded in the 11th century by ...

Article

Ken Brown

In 

See Takuma family

Article

Masatomo Kawai

Japanese painter, poet, calligrapher and Zen monk. He was a disciple of Musō Sōseki, the founder of Tenryūji in Kyoto. He went to China during the Yuan period (1279–1368) to study devotional poetry with the Chan (Zen) monk Gulin Qingmou. In addition to his Zen training, Tesshū also studied ...

Article

Yan Hui  

Chinese, 13th – 14th century, male.

Active during the Yuan dynasty.

Born in Jiangshan (Zhejiang).

Painter.

Yan Hui was well known for his representations of Buddhist and Taoist figures but was held in low regard in China because of his overly strong emotional expression, as can be seen in the hanging scroll ...

Article

Henrik H. Sørensen

Korean painter of Buddhist subjects of the Koryŏ period (918–1392). He is said to have painted in the style of the Li–Guo school, an approach to landscape painting developed by the Chinese painters Li Cheng and Guo Xi. Two of No Yŏng’s paintings survive, one, dating to ...