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Article

Alchi  

W. A. P. Marr

Buddhist monastery in a small valley on the left bank of the River Indus, c. 64 km west of Leh in Ladakh, India. Tradition attributes the monastery’s origin to the Tibetan scholar and temple-builder Rinchen Sangpo (ad 958–1055), the ‘great translator’, and although its buildings mostly date from the 11th century, the site is replete with his memory, from the ancient tree he planted to his portraits and images in the temples. A treasure-house of art, Alchi has been preserved because of its isolation from trade routes and the decline of its community, the monks of the Dromtön sect of the Kadampa order....

Article

Chinese, 12th – 13th century, male.

Painter. Figures.

Song dynasty.

Bo Liangyu was a member of the academy of painting during the reign of Emperor Ningzong (1195-1225). He devoted himself to painting Taoist and Buddhist figures.

Article

Frederick M. Asher

Pilgrimage centres and towns located on the Phalagu (Niranjana) River in Bihar, India. From an early date Gaya has been a site for the performance of śrāddha, rites for recently deceased parents. This ancient tradition and the general sanctity of Gaya in the 5th century...

Article

J. Marr and Christopher Tadgell

Fortress site in central Maharashtra, India, a key link in the chain of forts that once controlled the Deccan. The conical mountain of granite, rising over 180 m, was originally a Buddhist monastic site; some of its excavated shrines were incorporated into the earliest defences, which were probably created in the 9th century ...

Article

Dorothy C. Wang

Site of Buddhist cave sanctuaries located 25 km south-east of the county town of Dunhuang, Gansu Province, China. In the wider definition Dunhuang also includes the Yulin caves at Anxi and the Xi qianfo dong (Western Cave of the Thousand Buddhas). From the 4th century to the 14th, Buddhist cave sanctuaries were continuously carved out in four or five tiers on the cliff face of an alluvial hill that faces east over the Dang River. At its height as a Buddhist complex in the 8th century ...

Article

En  

Samuel C. Morse

School of Japanese sculpture that flourished during the 12th century. It was founded by and named after Ensei (d 1134) and was one of the two major schools of Japanese Buddhist sculpture of the later Heian period (794–1185), the other being the ...

Article

Gensho  

Japanese, 12th century, male.

Born 1146; died 1206.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Gensho was a priest at the Getsujo-in temple on Mount Koyasan. He specialised in painting Buddhist subjects.

Tazawa, Yutaka: Biographical Dictionary of Japanese Art, Kodansha International Ltd, Tokyo, 1981.

Article

In  

Samuel C. Morse

Major school of Japanese Buddhist sculpture of the late Heian (ad 794–1185) and early Kamakura (1185–1333) periods (see Japan, §V, 3, (iii)). The school took its name from Injō (d 1108), who was the chief disciple of ...

Article

Inkaku  

Japanese, 12th century, male.

Active during the first half of the 12th century.

Sculptor.

Inkaku, a Buddhist artist in the line of Jocho who died in 1057, worked in the Shichijo Omiya studio, founded in Kyoto by Injo, who died in 1108. He is said to be the sculptor of the statue of the Amida Buddha (Sanskrit: Amithaba Buddha) in the Hokongo-in monastery in Kyoto, dated ...

Article

Inson  

Japanese, 12th century, male.

Born 1120; died 1198.

Sculptor.

Inson was the son or disciple of Inkaky, and is the principal representative of one of the two main currents of Buddhist sculpture at the end of the Heian (or Fujiwara) period and at the beginning of the Kamakura period. He was the founder of the In, or In-pa School, known as Shichijo Omiya Bussho. He spent his life as an artist, being particularly active between ...

Article

Jochi  

Japanese, 12th century, male.

Active in the mid-12th century.

Painter.

Jochi was a Buddhist priest and painter who lived in one of the monasteries of Mount Koya. He decorated the pillars of the Daidempo-in Temple in 1147.

Article

Bruce A. Coats

Buddhist temple and garden near Nara in the Sōraku District, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It is a temple of the Pure Land (Jōdo) sect of Esoteric Buddhism. The present compound contains a honden (main hall), a pagoda and a pond garden. Alone among Pure Land temples, Jōruriji retains its original 12th-century garden designed to look like the Western Paradise. Temple records indicate that the temple was established in ...

Article

Kaikei  

Hiromichi Soejima

Japanese sculptor. He is associated with the Kei school of Buddhist sculpture and is thought to have been a disciple of Kōkei. The first reference to Kaikei occurs in the Lotus Sutra (Jap. Hokkekyō or Myōhō renge kyō; 1183; Ueno priv. col.), transcribed by Unkei...

Article

Kakumyo  

Japanese, 12th century, male.

Painter.

Kakumyo was a Buddhist monk-painter.

Article

Kakuyu  

Japanese, 11th – 12th century, male.

Born 1053; died 1140.

Painter.

Late Heian period.

A monk-painter of the Tendai Buddhist sect, Kakuyu was the son of Minamoto no Takakuni. He was one of the best-known painters of his generation and is traditionally believed to be the author of ...

Article

Kōkei  

Hiromichi Soejima

Japanese sculptor. He played a great role in the formation of a new style of Japanese Buddhist sculpture of the Kamakura period (1185–1333) and was the first of the sculptors working in this mode to whom the term Kei school is applied. He was one of the ...

Article

Mimi Hall Yiengpruksawan

Japanese Buddhist temple and shrine complex in Ito district, Wakayama Prefecture. Lying about 70 km south of Osaka on Mt Kōya (Kōyasan), a plateau on the eastern slope of the Takamine range, it was founded in the 9th century ad as the headquarters of the Shingon sect (...

Article

Junghee Lee

Korean dynasty that ruled from ad 918 to 1392. The Koryŏ kings were lavish in their patronage of Buddhist art of the major groups such as Sŏn and Kyo (see Buddhism, §III, 9). Wang kŏn, posthumously known as King T’aejo (reg ad...

Article

Chinese, 12th – 13th century, male.

Active at the end of the Southern Song dynasty (1127-1279), in Ningbo (Zhejiang).

Painter.

Lu Xinzhong, a painter of Buddhist figures, is not mentioned in the Chinese texts but is referred to in a Japanese work, the Kundaikan Sayuchoki...

Article

Ma Fen  

Chinese, 12th century, male.

Active during the first half of the 12th century.

Born in Hezhong (Shanxi).

Painter. Religious subjects, figures, landscapes.

Ma-Fen was a painter of Buddhist and animal figures and a member ( daizhao) of the academy of fine arts in the court of Kaifeng in about ...