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Article

Dapeng  

Chinese, 18th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 18th century.

Painter.

Dapeng was a Buddhist monk and finger painter who specialised in painting bamboo. He travelled to Japan in 1722.

Article

Chinese, 18th century, male.

Painter.

Qing dynasty.

Ding Guanpeng worked in the reign of Emperor Qianlong (1736-1796). He painted mainly Buddhist and Taoist figures in the style of Ding Yunpeng (active c.1584-1638). He also produced elegant copies after the ancient masters. His very wide use of colour suggests some western influence, which he no doubt learned from one or other of the Jesuit artists at Qianlong’s court....

Article

Stephen Addiss

Japanese Zen monk, painter and calligrapher. He was one of the most important painters of the Edo period (1600–1868), creating hundreds of paintings and calligraphies that revolutionized Zenga (painting and calligraphy by Zen monks from the 17th century to the 20th; see Japan, §VI, 4, (vii)...

Article

Genkei  

Japanese, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1648, in Kyoto; died 1710.

Sculptor, monk.

After having been a sculptor of Buddhist statues in Kyoto, Genkei became a monk in 1669, at the age of 21, and a disciple of Tetsugen Zenji. He then went on a long preaching tour of Japan during which he conceived the vast project of carving statues of the Rakan (the Arhats, or disciples of the Buddha). He went to Edo (now Tokyo) to seek the assistance of Tetsugyu Osho, a priest of the Gufuku-ji at Ushima, through whose good offices he was permitted to stay at the monastery attached to the Senso-ji (Asakusa-dera) at Edo. There, at the beginning of the Genroku period (...

Article

Stephen Addiss

Japanese Zen monk, painter and calligrapher. Of later Japanese artists in the Zenga (‘Zen painting’; see Japan, §VI, 4, (vii)) tradition, he is perhaps the best-known in the Western world.

Born to a farming family, he became a monk at the age of ten at Seitaiji in Mino Province and at 19 began studies with the outstanding Zen teacher ...

Article

Japanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1737; died 1812.

Painter.

Gyokuzan was a painter from Osaka. He was promoted to the rank of hokkyo, a title meaning ‘bridge of Buddhist law’ initially given to Buddhist monks but later becoming an honorific given to other worthy members of society, such as artists. He illustrated many historical narratives, notably the ...

Article

Hemis  

W. A. P. Marr

Buddhist monastery c. 45 km south-east of Leh in Ladakh, India. Founded by King Senge Namgyel in the 17th century, Hemis became the leading monastery in the region of the Tibetan Drukpa sect. Its buildings comprise chortens (stupas), mani walls, monastic dwellings and a large rectangular courtyard used for the annual monastic dance ceremony. This court is surrounded by a balcony with a throne used by the head lama on such occasions; small paintings of saintly figures appear on the rear wall of the balcony. Within the court are four tall poles decked with prayer flags and yak tails. On the right-hand side are two large temples, the Dukhang and the Chökhang; each is two storeys high and preceded by a wooden verandah containing Tibetan-style paintings of protector deities....

Article

Patricia Fister

Japanese priest and painter . The first half of his life is recorded in his autobiography. At the age of nine he became a Buddhist monk at the Jōdo (Pure Land) sect temple Sōkinji in Osaka. He left at the age of seventeen and went to Edo (now Tokyo), where he was admitted into the Jōdo temple Zōjōji in Shiba. Expelled later for frequenting the pleasure districts, he spent some years travelling. He returned to the Kyoto area and resumed his studies, later accepting a position as head priest at Gokurakuji on Mt Kinkoku, in northern Kyoto, from which he took his artist’s name. In ...

Article

Kokan  

Japanese, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1653; died 1717.

Painter.

Kokan, who became the superior at the Hoon-ji temple in Kyoto, studied painting with Eino (1631-1697). He specialised in Buddhist themes as well as humorous subjects verging on caricature.

Article

Kumbum  

Barry Till

Monastery complex c. 26 km north-east of Xining, Qinghai Province, China. Kumbum is one of the six great monasteries of the Gelugpa sect of Tibetan Buddhism, as it marks the birthplace of Tsong Khapa (1357–1419), who founded the sect. Construction of a small monastery called Shardzong on this spot took place between ...

Article

Donald F. McCallum

Japanese sculptor and Buddhist monk. He was an ascetic priest of the Shingon sect (see Buddhism, §III, 10) during the Edo period (1600–1868) and apparently functioned as an itinerant monk (hijiri) in early adulthood. At the age of 45 he took vows as a ‘wood-eater’ (...

Article

Ryōkan  

Cecil H. Uyehara

Japanese Zen monk, calligrapher and poet. He became a monk at the age of 18 at the temple Kōshōji, Okayama Prefecture, but, being a wanderer for most of his life, never attained high monastic rank. He is known for his poetry in Japanese and Chinese and his individualistic, indeed idiosyncratic, swiftly brushed style of calligraphy and is one of the most respected calligraphers of the late Edo period, receiving more attention and study than his contemporaries ...

Article

Stephen Addiss

Japanese monk–scholar, calligrapher and painter. He is considered one of the most powerful calligraphers in the so-called Zenga tradition (see Japan, §VII, 2, (iv)), excelling in Chinese, Japanese and Sanskrit scripts. He was born to a family of samurai–official status; his father was a noted scholar and his mother a calligrapher and devout Buddhist. Jiun initially received a Confucian education, but after his father’s death in ...

Article

Tankai  

Japanese, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1629; died 1716 or 1718.

Sculptor.

Edo period.

The founder of the Hozan-ji temple in Nara Prefecture, Tankai made a considerable number of Buddhist statues, of which the Fudo Myoo (Acala or Acalanatha, the Immutable) statues in Horyu-ji, preserved in the Toshodai-ji, Nara, are a representative example. Unlike most of his professional contemporaries, who made up for a lack of talent with an excess of technical skill, Tankai produced work remarkable for its power....

Article

Wu Zi  

Chinese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1755, in Quanjiao (Anhui); died 1821.

Painter.

Wu Zi painted Buddhist and Taoist figures in the style of Wu Daozi and Wang Guang.

Article

Chinese, 18th century, male.

Active in Suzhou c. 1765.

Born in Shanghai.

Painter.

Qing dynasty.

Yu Zongli painted landscapes and Buddhist and Taoist figures.