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Article

‛Abid  

Jeffrey A. Hughes

Indian miniature painter, son of Aqa Riza and brother of Abu’l-Hasan. Both his father and his brother worked for the Mughal emperor Jahangir (reg 1605–27). Although ‛Abid probably began working in the royal atelier c. 1615, all of his known signed works are datable to the reign of ...

Article

J. P. Losty

Indian painter.

In 1618 the Mughal emperor Jahangir (reg 1605–27) wrote in his memoirs that Abu’l-Hasan’s ‘work was perfect…At the present time he has no rival or equal… Truly he has become Nadir al-Zaman (“Wonder of the age”)’. Some of this artist’s paintings are among the greatest in Mughal art. He was born in Jahangir’s household in ...

Article

R. Nath, Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Dynasty that ruled portions of southern India from 1489 to 1686. Its founder, Yusuf ‛Adil Shah (reg 1489–1509), had come to India from Persia and was appointed governor of Bijapur under the Bahmani family rulers. He declared his independence when that dynasty declined. Yusuf had a prolonged conflict with the Portuguese, who were able to secure Goa in ...

Article

Robert Skelton

Persian painter, active in India. He has been identified from three inscribed works bearing his name: a Seated Poet (Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.), a Seated Youth (Washington, DC, Freer) and the drawing of A Girl in the Binney Collection (San Diego, CA, Mus. A.). The latter, signed Muhammad ‛Ali Jahangir Shahi with the presumed regnal date 5 (...

Article

Amer  

Walter Smith

City in north-west Rajasthan, India, founded by Mina tribesmen in the early 10th century ad and taken by the Kachchhwaha Rajputs c. 1150. Amer is dominated by the palace complex located halfway up a hill crowned by massive fortifications. Below, a maze of buildings constitutes the town. The ...

Article

Anant  

Philippa Vaughan

Indian miniature painter. Trained in the studio of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605), he blossomed under Akbar’s successor Jahangir (reg 1605–27). Anant is known through two sole compositions in the Tīmūrnāma (‘History of Timur’; 1584; Bankipur, Patna, Khuda Bakhsh Lib., fols 182...

Article

John Seyller

Indian miniature painter , brother of Payag. Balchand began his long career in the imperial Mughal atelier with figural illuminations on at least three pages (fols 17r, 33v, 60v) of the Bāharistān (‘Spring garden’) of Jamiz of 1595 (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Elliot 254). The small, repetitive figures in two lightly coloured illustrations in the ...

Article

R. Nath

Dynasty that ruled portions of southern India from 1527 to 1619. It was one of five successor states that emerged in the Deccan as the Bahmani family kingdom disintegrated. Qasim Barid, a Turkish slave who became a powerful noble under the Bahmani rulers, declared himself chief minister as the dynasty collapsed. His son Amir Barid (...

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered....

Article

Robert Skelton, Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Persian painter, active in India. He went to India at the age of 39. His year of birth, ah 954–5 (ad 1547–8), has been calculated from an inscribed painting, executed when he was 70 in ah 1024. His ethnic origin has been given by Abu’l Fazl as Qalmaq and elsewhere as Qaqshali (a misreading of Qashqa’i?). He evidently received his training in Khurasan, probably from artists associated with the production of a manuscript of Jami’s ...

Article

Besakih  

D. J. Stuart-Fox

Balinese Hindu temple (pura) complex. It is situated on the south-western flank of the volcano Gunung Agung, Bali’s highest mountain, in the north-east of the island. Associated probably since prehistoric times with the Lord of the Mountain, now identified with the Hindu god Shiva, it has been a dynastic temple of several royal families since at least the 15th century. The complex consists of 22 temples, spread along three parallel ridges over a distance of more than a kilometre. The complex was not planned as an entity but seems to have been constructed piecemeal, and the overall structure that links the temples is more ritual and symbolic than physical. The annual cycle of more than 70 rituals culminates in the enormous centennial Ekadasa Rudra ceremony....

Article

Bichitr  

John Seyller

Indian miniature painter. Bichitr’s career spanned the reigns of the Mughal emperors Jahangir (reg 1605–27) and Shah Jahan (reg 1628–58). What are apparently his earliest works show the same accomplished technique and surface brilliance that characterize those from the end of his career. Only three examples have inscribed dates: two paintings of ...

Article

Anand Krishna

Indian miniature painter. Not to be confused with the contemporary master Farrukh Beg, he was a middle-rank, prolific painter who contributed to most of the major illustrated manuscripts produced for the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605), starting from the Dārābnāma (‘Story of Darab’; c....

Article

R. Nagaswamy

Temple site in Tamil Nadu, India, sacred to Shiva in his form as Nataraja, the Cosmic Dancer. The Nataraja temple occupies an area of about 16 ha and consists of a complex series of walled enclosures containing shrines, halls and gateways built between the 12th and 20th centuries. The temple’s origin is ascribed to the sages Vyagrapada and Patanjali, and it has become associated with Appar and other southern saints. The ...

Article

Milo Cleveland Beach

Indian miniature painter, nephew of Nanha. He is known mainly for his portraits, in the finest of which he not only conveyed a likeness of the people he painted but also showed an interest in the psychological penetration of his subjects and the exploration of the emotional currents and interactions among figures, even minor ones. He worked on several imperial commissions at the end of the reign of the emperor Akbar (...

Article

Asok Kumar Das

Indian miniature painter. Although he was not included in Abu’l Fazl’s list of 17 leading painters of the workshop of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605), starting as a colourist in the 1580s he matured into a top-class painter, producing many superb miniatures in the last decade of the 16th century. He worked as a colourist to Kesav Das in a miniature of the ...

Article

Philippa Vaughan

Indian miniature painter. A Hindu, he is best known for his copies and adaptations of European prints, of which the most famous is St Matthew the Evangelist. Signed Kesu Das and dated ah 996 (ad 1587–8), this is based on an engraving by Philip Galle after Maarten van Heemskerck. Kesu Das’s understanding and transformation of European techniques in rendering volume and space made a decisive contribution to the evolution of the studio under the Mughal emperor ...

Article

Daulat  

John Seyller

Indian miniature painter. He began his career in the imperial Mughal atelier under Akbar (reg 1556–1605) and became a major painter during the reign of Jahangir (reg 1605–27), specializing in portraiture. His early works, which appear in the Akbarnāma (‘History of Akbar’) of ...

Article

Ghulam  

Jeffrey A. Hughes

Indian miniature painter. At least two signed early works are known by the Mughal painter Ghulam (Pers.: ‘slave’). Inscriptions on paintings reading ‘the slave of Shah Salim’ (e.g. Los Angeles, CA, Co. Mus. A., L.69.24.259) indicate that he worked for Prince Salim, the future emperor ...

Article

Gingee  

Walter Smith and Christopher Tadgell

Fort c. 132 km south-west of Madras in Tamil Nadu, India. The fort was begun under the Chola dynasty, who erected a citadel on the hill known as Rajagiri. By the mid-15th century the hills of Rajagiri, Chandragiri and Krishnagiri had been incorporated into a triangular complex by an outer curtain wall that defends all three. Inside, a further system of walls protects the citadel on Rajagiri and the usable high ground on Chandragiri and Krishnagiri. Supplementary walls seal off the outer wall halfway between Chandragiri and Krishnagiri, and a series of diagonally disposed gates, moats and courts make the fort difficult to enter and easy to defend. The fortifications at Gingee were repaired and extended by viceroys of the ...