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Article

Milo Cleveland Beach, Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Iranian miniature painter and calligrapher, active also in India. Trained in Safavid Iran, ‛Abd al-Samad migrated to India, where he became director of the Mughal painting workshops under the emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605). In this key position, he influenced the development of Mughal painting in the second half of the 16th century more than any other artist (...

Article

Sheila R. Canby

Persian painter, active also in India. He was the son of the Safavid-period painter Mir Musavvir. Though Qazi Ahmad, writing in the late 16th century, deemed him cleverer in art than his father, Mir Sayyid ‛Ali reveals paternal influence in his meticulous rendering of ornamental patterns and details. As he was a junior artist at the time of the royal ...

Article

Alan Powers

English illustrator and author. From 1905 he grew up in England, becoming a professional artist in 1926 after part-time study at the Westminster School of Art, London. He became known as an illustrator of genre scenes in a variety of media, often with a comic Victorian flavour. He was best known for illustrated stories, the first of which, ...

Article

Filipino, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 9 August 1932, in Manila, Philippines.

Illustrator.

Having graduated in law from the University of the Philippines, José Aruego decided to devote himself to illustration. In the 1950s he settled in New York, where he took courses at the Parsons School of Design. His first children’s book ...

Article

Basawan  

Milo Cleveland Beach

Indian miniature painter. One of the great talents to flourish under the emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605), he was a prolific painter who contributed to virtually all the great illustrated manuscripts executed in the imperial workshops over a span of some 40 years. While most Mughal artists were concerned with the importance of line, colour and surface pattern, Basawan, with a greater understanding of the techniques of imported European works, developed a palette closer to that of European oil painting and dissolved outlines to create greater three-dimensionality. In his work, surface patterns are subservient to a dramatic spatial penetration of the picture plane. These traits were quite new within both Indian and Islamic traditions, and Basawan led the vanguard in adopting them. His work is remarkable also for the complexity of his compositions, his skill at giving roundness and density to his figures and his sensitive portrait-like faces. A contemporary assessment of Basawan is found in the ...

Article

Filipino, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1942, in Malabon, Manila, Philippines.

Painter, printmaker, illustrator. Figures, portraits.

Baguio Arts Guild.

Bencab started drawing at the age of seven and was influenced by his older brother Salvador, an artist. He later studied at the University of the Philippines College of Fine Arts and worked for several publications as an illustrator and layout artist. In ...

Article

Anand Krishna

Indian miniature painter. Not to be confused with the contemporary master Farrukh Beg, he was a middle-rank, prolific painter who contributed to most of the major illustrated manuscripts produced for the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605), starting from the Dārābnāma (‘Story of Darab’; c....

Article

Philippa Vaughan

Indian miniature painter. His only known attributed work is in the Jog-bashisht (1602; Dublin, Chester Beatty Lib., Ind. MS. 5), the Persian translation of a Sanskrit text on Vedanta philosophy. The manuscript has 41 illustrations produced at Allahabad under the patronage of Prince Salim (later the Mughal emperor Jahangir, ...

Article

French and Ivorian, 20th century, female.

Born in Hué, Vietnam.

Sculptor (marble/bronze/wood), installation artist, designer. Artists’ books.

Born of a Vietnamese mother and a French father, Dominique Le Houelleur holds a passion for Africa and lives and works in the Ivory Coast. A self-taught artist, she sought guidence from the Italian sculptor Giorgio Angeli in Querceta where she also met the Japanese sculptor Isamu Noguchi. In ...

Article

Mahesh  

John Seyller

Indian miniature painter. An accomplished artist who contributed to at least a dozen manuscripts produced for the emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605), he worked in a style that represents the mainstream of Mughal painting in the 1580s. His work is characterized by lively figures, bright colours and compositions in which surface design dominates and spatial recession is negligible. His name appears in a list of 17 painters in the ...

Article

Vietnamese, 20th century, male.

Born 1923.

Painter (gouache), illustrator, caricaturist.

Mai Van Hien studied at the school of fine arts in Hanoi from 1943 to 1948. He aimed at a simplified drawing in his work and favoured an ‘optimistic’ palette.

André-Pallois, Nadine/Ménonville, Corinne de...

Article

Malang  

Filipino, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1928, in Santa Cruz, Manila, Philippines.

Painter, cartoonist, illustrator, printmaker. Local genre scenes, figures, landscapes, flora and fauna, folk art.

Saturday Group of Artists.

Malang (Mauro Malang Santos) learned how to draw at the age of ten from a private tutor. In ...

Article

Michael Curschmann

The medieval term mappa mundi (also forma mundi, historia/istoire) covers a broad array of maps of the world of which roughly 1100 survive. These have resisted systematic classification, but the clearly dominant type is one that aims at comprehensively symbolistic representation. Its early, schematic form is a disc composed of three continents surrounded and separated from one another by water (“T-O Map”) and associated with the three sons of Noah: Asia (Shem) occupies all of the upper half, Europe (Japhet) to the left and Africa (Ham) to the right share the lower half. Quadripartite cartographic schemes included the antipodes as a fourth continent, but the tripartite model was adopted by the large majority of the more developed world maps in use from the 11th century on and—with important variations—well into the Renaissance. While details were added as available space permitted, the Mediterranean continued to serve as the vertical axis and, with diminishing clarity, the rivers Don and Nile as the horizontal one. The map also continues to be ‘oriented’ towards Asia, where paradise sits at the very top. A circular ocean forms the perimeter and not infrequently the city of Jerusalem constitutes its centre....

Article

Mukund  

John Seyller

Indian miniature painter. All known works by Mukund were painted under the patronage of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605). He must have joined the court atelier before the time of the Razmnāma (‘Book of wars’; 1582–6; Jaipur, Maharaja Sawai Singh II Mus., MS. AG. ...

Article

Sheila R. Canby

Persian illustrator and painter. According to the contemporary chronicler Dust Muhammad, Mir Musavvir and Aqa Mirak were two matchless sayyids in service to the Safavid royal library who did wall paintings for the palace of Prince Sam Mirza and illustrations for royal manuscripts of Firdawsi’s ...

Article

Filipino, 20th century, male.

Active settled and naturalised in the USA from 1930.

Born 2 August 1916, in Manila; died 1990, in East Hampton (New York).

Painter, collage artist, assemblage artist, engraver, draughtsman, sculptor, illustrator, mixed media.

Alfonso Ossorio spent his childhood in Great Britain and in ...

Article

Indonesian, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1966, in Pekan Baru, Indonesia.

Active in Amsterdam.

Photographer and film maker. Film and video installations, artists’ books.

Fiona Tan was born in Indonesia, the daughter of a Chinese father and an Australian mother of Scottish heritage. She spent most of her childhood in Melbourne, Australia. As an adult she relocated to Amsterdam, where she now lives and works. She studied art at Gerrit Rietveld Academie ...

Article

Tara  

Heather Elgood

Indian miniature painter. His work conformed to the conventions of the period of patronage of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605), and he contributed to at least five manuscripts during this time. His work is characterized by a love of bright primary colours and a lively sense of movement and realism. By ...

Article

Filipino, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 5 February 1957, in Manila.

Draughtsman, illustrator.

Truong has a doctorate in English and a degree in political science. He has executed numerous illustrations for newspapers and magazines including: Libération, Le Nouvel Observateur and Je Bouquine.

Paris, 5 April 1991...

Article

Vietnamese, 20th century, male.

Born 1945, in Hai Hung.

Painter (gouache), engraver, illustrator, lithographer. Genre scenes.

Xuan Dong studied at the fine arts college in Ho Chi Mihn City, where he became head of the department of illustrative arts. Xuan Dong’s works include The Return of Peace...