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Article

Anyang  

Robert W. Bagley

Chinese city in Henan Province, near the site of the last capital of the Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, occupied c.1300– c. 1050 bc. The site is sometimes called Yinxu, ‘Waste of Yin’, an ancient name for the abandoned city.

At least as early as the Northern Song period (...

Article

Banpo  

Mary S. Lawton

Site of a Neolithic village 10 km east of Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, China, from which is derived the name of the early phase (c. 4800–c. 4300 bc) of the Neolithic Central Yangshao culture. Archaeological excavations began in 1953; within an area of 5 hectares, 45 residences and more than 200 tombs were revealed. Subsequent carbon-14 tests dated the site to soon after ...

Article

Banshan  

Julia M. White

Site in the Tao River valley near Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China. First excavated in 1924 by the Swedish archaeologist johan gunnar Andersson (1874–1960), it gives its name to a phase (c. 2800–c. 2300 bc) of the Neolithic-period Western or Gansu Yangshao culture....

Article

Baoji  

Li Liu

Chinese city in Shaanxi Province, where several important sites from the Neolithic to Eastern Zhou periods (c. 6500–256 bc) have been discovered. A Neolithic village site was excavated in 1958–60 and 1977–8 at Beishouling. The cultural deposits found belong to the Laoguantai culture and the Yangshao culture, dated by radiocarbon analysis to ...

Article

J. Edward Kidder jr

Japanese site in Shinbohon-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa Prefecture. It flourished during the Jōmon period (c. 10,000–c. 300 bc). It is a wooden circle site and served as the centre of a vast residential area, apparently rebuilt for thousands of years and finally abandoned in the Latest or Final Jōmon period (...

Article

Christopher Fung

Chinese Neolithic site in Taian, Shandong Province. It gives its name to a Neolithic culture that stretched across Shandong, western Henan, northern Anhui and Jiangsu provinces c. 4300–c. 2400 bc. In the core area, Shandong, the Dawenkou culture developed from the Beixin culture and was succeeded by the ...

Article

Daxi  

Christopher Fung

Chinese Neolithic culture of the middle Yangzi River basin, dating from c. 4400 bc to c. 3300 bc; it is named after the type-site at Daxi Wushan, Sichuan Province. Other important sites exhibiting this culture include Guanmiaoshan Zhijiang, in Hubei Province, Honghuatao, Yidu, in Hubei Province and ...

Article

Erlitou  

Susanne Juhl

Early Bronze Age Chinese culture (first half of the 2nd millennium bc) distributed throughout Henan Province and surrounding areas, named after the village of Erlitou, situated in Yanshi County, Henan Province, near the modern city of Luoyang, where the largest site pertaining to the culture was found. The distribution and dating of the Erlitou culture largely corresponds to information in historical texts about the ...

Article

Fu Hao  

Anthony Barbieri-Low

Chinese consort to Wu Ding, the fourth Shang king to rule from the last capital of the dynasty, at a site near modern Anyang in Henan Province. The oracle bone inscriptions found at Anyang reveal a glimpse of Fu Hao’s life and career, but her tomb, discovered in ...

Article

Hemudu  

Robert E. Murowchick

Site of a Neolithic village in Yuyao County, Zhejiang Province, China. It was excavated in 1973–4 and 1977–8. Of the four cultural layers identified, the upper two layers (1 and 2), radiocarbon dated to c. 3700 bc, correspond to the neighbouring Songze culture. The lower two layers (3 and 4), radiocarbon dated to the late 6th millennium ...

Article

Bent L. Pedersen

Chinese Neolithic culture covering the area of Liaoning Province, the western part of Inner Mongolia and northeast Hebei Province with the main distribution in western Liaoning between 4000 and 3000 bc. The culture was named after the site of the first find in 1908 at Hongshanhou near Chifeng on the Laoha River....

Article

Bonnie Abiko

Period in Japanese archaeological and cultural chronology (see Japan, §I, 2). The term Jōmon means ‘cord-mark design’ and was first applied by Morse, Edward Sylvester in 1879 to a period in Japanese prehistory during which pottery with this distinctive type of surface patterning was produced. The Jōmon period extends over ten millennia from ...

Article

Robert E. Murowchick

Chinese late Neolithic culture of the area of Shanghai, southern Jiangsu Province and northern Zhejiang Province. The type site is near Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province. The Liangzhu culture was discovered in the 1930s. Excavations of major Liangzhu habitation and burial sites have produced a series of radiocarbon dates of between ...

Article

Bent L. Pedersen

Chinese Neolithic culture (c. 2500–c. 2000 bc), named after the type site at Longshan, Chengziyai, Zhangqiu County, in Shandong Province. The site was excavated in 1930–31 by Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960). Remains of the Longshan culture have been identified in two distinct areas: in the provinces of Shandong and Jiangsu and, further west, in the provinces of Hebei, Henan, Shanxi and Shaanxi. The classic Longshan culture originated in central Shandong Province and was a development of the ...

Article

Machang  

Bent L. Pedersen

Neolithic site east of Ledu in eastern Qinghai Province, China. Excavated in 1921–3 by the Swedish archaeologist Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960), it is the type site of the Machang phase (c. 2000–c. 1800 bc) of the Gangsu Yangshao culture. The best-preserved remains of Machang houses are found in Majiawan in Yongjing, Gansu Province; they have round or square semi-subterranean floors, wattle-and-daub walls and probably thatched roofs. The tombs are mostly single, although multiple tombs have also been discovered; wooden coffins were often used. The pottery vessels that served as grave goods varied in number from a few to several dozen and sometimes contained grains of millet. The pottery was made of either red clay or sand-tempered red and grey clay, the most usual forms being jars, juglike vessels and bowls. The red clay vessels are either plain or painted in red, black and maroon slip. The painted designs extend two-thirds of the way down the vessel, and the black lines characteristic of Gansu Yangshao pottery are often enhanced with red lines. Common motifs include four large circles, anthropomorphic patterns, ringlets, spirals and woven and checked patterns. Much of the pottery bears painted symbols, of which 139 different signs have been identified. Small clay masks have also been found. Some large jars have been found with tops in the shape of human heads: on one there is a human figure with both female and male sexual organs and breasts (Beijing, Pal. Mus.). These human figures were probably associated with shamanistic rituals....

Article

Bent L. Pedersen

Neolithic site in Lintao County, Gansu Province, China. Excavated in 1921–3 by the Swedish archaeologist Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960), it is the type site of the Majiayao phase (later part of the 4th millennium bc) of the Gansu or Western Yangshao culture (...

Article

Bent L. Pedersen

Phase of the Chinese Neolithic Yangshao culture named after Miaodigou village, Shan xian, Henan Province, where the first find was made. Two distinct cultures within the Miaodigou phase have been identified, the first dating from c. 4000–c. 3300 bc and the second dating from ...

Article

Bent Nielsen

County in Hunan Province, China, west of the city of Changsha. Several remarkable bronze vessels and bells of the late Shang Anyang phase (c. 1300–c. 1050 bc; see China, People’s Republic of, §VII, 3, (ii)) were at various times discovered in the ground or in watercourses in the vicinity of the town of Huangcai in Ningxiang County. Although the site is of the Anyang phase chronologically, the bronzes found there differ stylistically from Anyang bronzes....

Article

J. Edward Kidder jr

Japanese shell-midden in Ōmori, Ota and Shinagawa Wards, Tokyo, dating from the Late Jōmon period (c. 2500–c. 1000 bc). It was excavated by the American conchologist Edward Sylvester Morse (see also Japan, §XXI), who is credited with introducing the principles of modern archaeology to ...

Article

J. Edward Kidder jr

Site on a terrace along the River Ōyu near the Ōyu hot spring, Rokkaku City, Akita Prefecture, Japan. The largest of the stone circle sites in northern Japan, the Ōyu site has been known since 1931, was investigated in 1941 and excavated in 1951–2 under the auspices of the Cultural Properties Protection Committee. Associated pottery, which includes strange and unusual shapes not seen elsewhere, dates the circles to ...