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Article

Gordon Campbell

Unwoven cloth made from the bast (inner bark) of a tree. It is also known as ‘tapa’, with reference to the Polynesian bark cloth made from the bark of the paper mulberry and used for clothing. There is a huge collection of Polynesian bark cloth in the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in Honolulu. In sub-Saharan Africa bark cloth was traditionally decorated with free-hand painting applied with grass brushes, and was used for room-dividers and screens as well as clothing. Its widest application was in Japan, where bark cloth was used for windows, screens, kites, flags and umbrellas....

Article

Jan Minchin

He grew up in Warsaw. His father, the pseudonymous Jewish writer Melech Ravitch, owned books on German Expressionism, which were an early influence. Conscious of rising anti-Semitism in Poland, Ravitch visited Australia in 1934 and later arranged for his family to settle there. Bergner arrived in Melbourne in ...

Article

Gensler  

Sara Stevens

American architectural firm started by Arthur Gensler Drue Gensler, and Jim Follett in 1965 in San Francisco, CA. M. Arthur Gensler jr (b Brooklyn, New York, 1935) attended Cornell University to study architecture (BArch, 1957). The firm began doing build-outs for retail stores and corporate offices, and initially established itself in the unglamorous area of interior architecture. Thirty years later and without mergers or acquisitions, it had grown to become one of the largest architecture firms in the world, having pioneered the global consultancy firm specializing in coordinated rollouts of multi-site building programmes. By ...

Article

Anthony Gardner

Malaysian conceptual artist, active also in Australia. Gill studied at the University of Western Sydney, completing her MA in 2001. Despite working in a range of media, she is best understood as a process-based artist who has consistently explored notions of migration and transformation within material culture. These include the effects of international trade on such everyday activities as cooking and eating. The spiral form of ...

Article

Rory Spence

American architects and designers, also active in Australia and India. Marion Mahony Griffin (née Mahony) (b Chicago, 14 Feb 1871; d Chicago, 10 Aug 1961) worked together with her husband Walter Burley Griffin (b Maywood, IL, 24 Nov 1876; d Lucknow, 11 Feb 1937...

Article

Nadia Tscherny

English painter. He first attended classes at William Shipley’s Academy in the Strand, London, and from 1758 to 1765 was apprenticed to Richard Wilson (about whom he published a short biographical essay in 1790). Hodges followed Wilson’s classical landscape style periodically throughout his career, but, particularly during his travels, he also occasionally abandoned it in favour of freer handling, bolder juxtapositions of colour and a more empirical response to the natural world....

Article

Philip Stott, Miranda Bruce-Mitford, J. Dumarçay, Frederick Mathewson Denny, Jan Fontein, R. Soekmono, Helen Ibbitson Jessup, Victor T. King, Urs Ramseyer, Michael Hitchcock, Sheila S. Blair, Jonathan M. Bloom, John N. Miksic, Ruth Barnes, Mattiebelle Gittinger, Ward Keeler, Angela Hobart, Victoria M. Clara van Groenendael, Wolfgang Marschall, Bernard Arps, H. I. R. Hinzler, Sian E. Jay, Dawn F. Rooney, Robert S. Wicks, Daniëlle Grosheide and Lewis G. Hill

Country in South-east Asia comprising over 13,700 islands that extend in an arc straddling the equator, from Sumatra, west of Peninsular Malaysia, to the island of New Guinea, north of Australia (see fig.). Irian Jaya, the easternmost province of Indonesia, comprises the western half of the island of New Guinea; its population and cultures are Melanesian rather than Indonesian, and it is therefore treated elsewhere (...

Article

Sarah Cook and Marialaura Ghidini

Sarah Cook and Marialaura Ghidini

Art that uses the Internet not only as its tool of production and distribution but also as its source material or medium, and exploits or reflects the Internet’s inherently connective characteristics. While not a distinct art form or style, Internet art has been discussed in connection to the history of media art, predominantly through studies of the screen (see Bosma, ...

Article

A. A. Gerbrands

Indonesian province, comprising the western half of New Guinea and surrounding islands, with a population of c. 2.7 million. Formerly a Dutch colony, it was administered by Indonesia under the authority of the United Nations from 1963 until 1969, when it was formally incorporated into the Republic of Indonesia. Culturally Irian Jaya is generally classified as Melanesian rather than Indonesian. Its art has been quite widely studied and illustrated (see bibliography). There are also a number of important museum collections, both in Irian Jaya itself (e.g. Agats, Asmat Mus. Cult. & Prog.) and in the West (e.g. New York, Mus. Primitive A.: Basle, Mus. Vlkerknd.; Amsterdam, Tropenmus.; Leiden, Rijksmus. Vlkenknd.)....

Article

Anne Kirker

Australian draughtswoman, active in the USA. Of Iraqi descent, Khedoori was born and raised in Australia, going on to study at the San Francisco Art Institute where she was awarded a BFA in 1988, and then studying at the University of California, Los Angeles, where she received an MFA in ...

Article

Alexander Spoehr

Group of sixteen islands, of which six are inhabited, in the western Pacific Ocean, c. 2250 km south of Japan. The islands comprise the US territory of Guam and the self-governing Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, which has close ties with the USA. The islands are usually classified as Micronesian. The indigenous islanders, the ...

Article

Australian, 20th century, male.

Born 1917.

Painter. Religious subjects, figures.

Sydney Group.

Justin Maurice O'Brien joined the medical corps of the Australian army at the start of World War II. In 1940 he was sent to Palestine, then Greece. During this period he began to paint - particularly faces - and made many sketches. He was taken prisoner and remained in Athens for seven months, before being transferred to Poland in December ...

Article

Ian McLean

Australian Aboriginal painter. Peters is a member of the Gija-speaking peoples from the East Kimberley region in North-western Australia. The Gija painting movement began around 1980 at Turkey Creek (now Warmun) and Peters worked closely with this first generation of ochre painters for 20 years as an educator in indigenous cultural programmes. His painting career began in ...

Article

Noémie Goldman and Kim Oosterlinck

Term for the return of lost or looted cultural objects to their country of origin, former owners, or their heirs. The loss of the object may happen in a variety of contexts (armed conflicts, war, colonialism, imperialism, or genocide), and the nature of the looted cultural objects may also vary, ranging from artworks, such as paintings and sculptures, to human remains, books, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. An essential part of the process of restitution is the seemingly unavoidable conflict around the transfer of the objects in question from the current to the former owners. Ownership disputes of this nature raise legal, ethical, and diplomatic issues. The heightened tensions in the process arise because the looting of cultural objects challenges, if not breaks down, relationships between peoples, territories, cultures, and heritages....

Article

Australian architect of German origin. He was brought up in Germany but studied architecture at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zurich, under Otto Rudolf Salvisberg. He moved to Australia in 1938 and worked briefly for Stephenson & Turner before setting up in private practice. Romberg introduced analytical European Modernism to Australia with his ‘Newburn’ block of flats (...

Article

William Main

New Zealand photographer and decorative artist of Dutch origin. He was educated in the Netherlands and in New Zealand, where he attended the Canterbury School of Fine Arts, Christchurch, in 1939. Shortly after this he gradually withdrew from Western cultural influences and began to draw upon Asian and Polynesian influences for his artistic inspiration. While attempting to trace early examples of Maori art he studied cave drawings in remote parts of New Zealand, and also photographed geothermal formations in the centre of North Island. Influenced by the Maori artist Pine Taiapa, he revived an almost forgotten Maori art form by decorating gourds with intricate moko designs. Finally, he took up the carving of jade ornaments, and his success in this work led to the publication of his book ...

Article

Jean Robertson and Craig McDaniel

The final decades of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century witnessed an increasing propensity for artists to incorporate aspects of science in their own art. In many fields of scientific research—including the cloning of mammals, the genetic modification of crops, the creation of bioengineered organs and tissues, advances in nanotechnology and robotics, experimental research in how the human mind works and the study of artificial intelligence—the frontiers of knowledge pushed outward at an accelerated pace. In the spirit of creative inquiry, or in order to critique the goals and outcomes of scientific experimentation and application, artists regularly borrowed subjects, tools and approaches from science as a means to the production of art (...

Article

Susie Lingham

Singapore-born installation artist, active in Australia . A recipient of numerous scholarships, Victor graduated from the University of Western Sydney with a BA Honours (1997) and an MA Honours (2000). Victor’s career ranged from prize-winning painter in the late 1980s, to ‘subversive’ in the early 1990s, and eventually to internationally esteemed artist with prestigious public art commissions to her name. Victor’s themes revolve around a critique of power and its subversion, sexuality and desire, notions of abjection and the cultural aftermath of post-colonialism in South-east Asia. Her work operates from a sophisticated, idiosyncratic aesthetic that runs counter to the dematerializing, technological trend of contemporary conceptual art. A key feature in her works is movement, achieved through mechanisms, engaging the viewer both physiologically and psychologically. The dynamic conflation of theatrical images, sumptuous materiality, movement, and multi-tiered concepts epitomizes Victor’s oeuvre....

Article

Claire Roberts

Chinese painter and installation artist, active also in Australia. Guan Wei graduated from the Department of Fine Arts at Beijing Capital University in 1986 and worked as a teacher in a secondary school while pursuing his own experimental artistic practice. In 1989 he was invited to Australia as artist-in-residence at the Tasmanian School of Art, Hobart. Following the Tiananmen massacre on ...

Article

Ah Xian  

Claire Roberts

Chinese multimedia artist, active also in Australia. Ah Xian is a self-taught artist. He grew up during the Cultural Revolution (1966–76) and spent his early years in the relatively privileged environment of Beijing’s Science and Engineering University, where his parents worked. He trained as a mechanical fitter and worked in a factory, pursuing art on his own time. In the late 1970s he began to associate with avant-garde poets, writers and artists including members of The Stars, a non-official art group demanding freedom of artistic expression. Because his experimental works of art incorporating naked figures were considered at the time to be spiritually polluting, he was subject to routine surveillance by the Public Security Bureau....