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Article

French, 17th century, male.

Born 2 February 1616, in Montpellier; died 8 May 1671, in Paris.

Painter, fresco artist, engraver, draughtsman. History painting, religious subjects, allegorical subjects, mythological subjects, battles, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures.

Realism.

Sébastien Bourdon was the son of Martin Bourdon, master painter and stained glass worker, who gave him a grounding in his craft. At the age of seven Bourdon went to Paris with an uncle and was placed under the tutelage of Jean Barthélemy. At 14, heading South again, he stopped long enough in Bordeaux to paint frescoes on a ceiling of a local château, which suggests a degree of artistic proficiency. However, the young artist did not meet with much success and, after a miserable stay in Toulouse, he became a soldier, a job for which he was ill-suited. He managed to obtain his release and was 18 when he left for Rome. He visited Venice and other large Italian cities. From 1634 to 1637 he lived in Rome from the copies, some say pastiches, he produced of Cerquozzi, Benedetto Castiglione, Lodovico Carracci, Claude Lorraine, Andrea Sacchi, and particularly Bamboccio (Van Laer). He was a Calvinist, had to leave Rome when a colleague, the painter de Rieux, reported him as a heretic to the Holy Inquisition....

Article

Painter active in Italy. His nationality is not known. He was a follower of Caravaggio, and his rare works reveal a highly original and idiosyncratic response to that artist’s naturalism. Agostino Tassi mentioned him as involved, with several French artists, in the decoration of the Villa Lante at Bagnaia between ...

Article

Italian painter. He trained first with Matteo Ponzoni, then with Sebastiano Mazzoni; Mazzoni encouraged the development of a Baroque style, but Celesti was also attracted by the naturalism of the tenebrists. The first known works by Celesti are mature in style, and he had already achieved considerable fame in Venice when the Doge ...

Article

Francesco Frangi

Italian painter. He is best known for his dramatic oil paintings executed in a unique style of Caravaggesque realism modified by the elegance of Lombard Late Mannerism. He also adopted elements of a robust and unsophisticated realism from Piedmontese art, as is evident in his frescoes for the ...

Article

French, 17th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Died 8 January 1690.

Painter.

As 'peintre ordinaire du roi' (painter-in-ordinary to the king), Claude Goy realised numerous works in the royal châteaux (Palais-Royal, Versailles, Louvre, St-Germain, Trianon).

Article

Cynthia Lawrence

Flemish sculptor and architect. He was a pupil of Lucas Faydherbe, from whom he learnt the picturesque realism associated with Rubens’s workshop. He collaborated with the Mechelen sculptor Jan van der Steen in London before returning to Flanders and joining the Mechelen guild. Langhemans is best represented in Belgium by the works he executed for the church of St Rombout in Mechelen. The earliest is a naturalistic stone statue of ...

Article

Spanish, 17th century, male.

Born 1620, in Cádiz; died 1680, in Rome.

Painter. Seascapes.

The full surname of Henrique de las Marinas is unknown. As an artist he acquired a reputation for the realism of his paintings of landings in the Bay of Cádiz. The soundness of his drawing and the transparency of his colour are much admired. He amassed a considerable fortune and spent the end of his life in Italy....

Article

Mansur  

Indian, 17th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 17th century.

Miniaturist.

Mansur belonged to the school of artists around Akbar the Great (1556-1605) and became famous as an animal painter. His naturalism was tempered with a taste for abstraction and gives his ...

Article

Fabio Bisogni

Italian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. His early art drew on a variety of sources, which included the naturalism of Rutilio Manetti and Francesco Rustici, the descriptive realism of the engraver Giuliano Periccioli (d 1646) and the Baroque of Raffaelle Vanni. Mei’s interests even embraced 16th-century Sienese art. This stylistic variety is evident in his first known works, such as a bier (Casole d’Elsa, Collegiata), three signed miniatures in the ...

Article

Federica Lamera

Italian painter. He was a pupil in Genoa of Giovanni Andrea de’ Ferrari and perhaps also of Giulio Benso, from whom he acquired an inclination towards narrative and naturalism. Later he entered the workshop of Valerio Castello. About 1651 Merano went to Parma to study the works of Correggio and Parmigianino. Here he painted two oval frescoes of ...

Article

Richard C. Green

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was the son of the painter Giovanni Molinari (1633–87) and studied in Venice with Antonio Zanchi. His style had its origins in the naturalism and tenebrism of Neapolitan painting, introduced to Venice in the mid-17th century. Although his work always retained some traces of this naturalism, the typically violent subject-matter and intensity of the Neapolitan style were considerably tempered by the addition of classicizing elements and of rich, glowing colours. By the 1680s Molinari had developed his characteristic manner of depicting figures in poses of extreme torsion and vigorous movement, arranged in graceful compositions. His subject-matter included episodes from the Old and New Testaments, antiquity and Classical mythology. His classical idiom was most pronounced in his large canvases painted for churches, such as the ...

Article

Manuela B. Mena Marqués

Spanish painter and draughtsman. He combined 17th-century realism with a taste for serene, sweet and sentimental beauty. His large output of religious works included numerous treatments of the Immaculate Conception, and he was also one of the greatest portrait painters of his time. However, his fame abroad was established most especially by his genre pictures of children. His works were highly prized by collectors, particularly in the 18th century, and his painting, which was well known in other European countries, particularly England and France, served as an example to such artists as Gainsborough, Reynolds and Greuze....

Article

Giovanna Cassese

Italian painter and engraver. From 1600 until at least 1613 he was in Naples, where the naturalism of landscape painters from northern Europe, particularly Paul Bril, Goffredo Wals (fl 1615–31) and Adam Elsheimer, influenced his early development. After 1614 he was in Rome and became acquainted with the landscapes and seascapes of Agostino Tassi. In ...

Article

German, 17th century, male.

Born 1627, in Hanau; died 15 June 1702, on Ambon Island.

Draughtsman. Natural history (botanical subjects).

Rumpf was a naturalist, and a long-standing employee of the Dutch Indies Company between 1654 and 1702. He was the celebrated author of Herbarium Amboinense...

Article

John J. Chvostal

Italian painter. He is best known for his jewel-like paintings representing sacred and secular themes, which combine a delicate technique inspired by Adam Elsheimer with a note of observed realism owed to Caravaggio. He also painted altarpieces and worked in fresco.

By 1598 Saraceni had moved from Venice to Rome, where he studied with ...

Article

Fernando Benito Domenech

Spanish painter. Associated with the stylistic change that took place in Valencian painting during the last two decades of the 16th century, he introduced a new naturalism in contrast to the idealized style of followers of Juan de Juanes. Sariñena was in Italy between 1570...

Article

Italian painter. He played an important role in the spread of Caravaggism to Naples and in the development away from Late Mannerism to a greater naturalism. He was the son of the painter and gilder Sebastiano Sellitto, and he was apprenticed briefly to the Piedmontese painter ...

Article

Ivo Kořán

Bohemian painter. He was the foremost painter of mid-17th-century Bohemia, combining an experience of Italian art with a distinctive realism in altarpieces and portraits.

Škréta was the son of a royal clerk; his first mentors were probably artists of the court of Rudolf II, maybe the engraver ...

Article

Spanish, 17th century, male.

Born 1598, in Tarazona; died 1 January 1670, in Saragossa.

Painter, fresco artist. History painting.

After completing his studies, Francisco Ximenes journeyed to Rome, where he acquired a realist style. On his return, he was commissioned to execute two paintings for the cathedral in Saragossa. He bequeathed his estate to a welfare charity for the children of painters....