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Iain Boyd Whyte

German writer and publisher. From 1892 to 1894 he edited the Freie Bühne (later renamed Neue deutsche Rundschau), the Berlin-based magazine that acted as the chief mouthpiece of literary naturalism. He took up the cause of modernist painting in his very first publication, A. Böcklin...

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Paul Gerbod

French critic. In 1851, as a young law student, he demonstrated against the coup d’état by Louis-Napoleon. He joined a law firm but soon began to write art criticism: his review of the Paris Salon of 1857 in the journal Le Présent attracted considerable attention. He continued to write Salon criticism for the next 22 years for the ...

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Therese Dolan

(b Laon, 17 Sept 1821; d Sèvres, 6 Dec 1889). French critic and writer. He made his reputation in France as one of the chief spokesmen of the Realist movement in art and as a writer of Realist literature. He authored numerous novels, short stories, pantomimes and pioneering histories of caricature, faience and popular imagery. He published scholarly works on the ...

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French painter and writer. Courbet’s glory is based essentially on his works of the late 1840s and early 1850s depicting peasants and labourers, which were motivated by strong political views and formed a paradigm of Realism (see Realism). From the mid-1850s into the 1860s he applied the same style and spirit to less overtly political subjects, concentrating on landscapes and hunting and still-life subjects. Social commitment, including a violent anticlericalism, re-emerged in various works of the 1860s and continued until his brief imprisonment after the Commune of ...

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Bernadette Thomas

Belgian painter and writer. He showed an instinctive aptitude for painting while still very young. Rather than go to an academy, he worked in Thomas Couture’s studio in Paris before enrolling at the Atelier Saint-Luc in Brussels (1853–63), where his contemporaries included Félicien Rops and Constantin Meunier. At the Salon of ...

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Ettore Spalletti

Italian sculptor and writer. He was among the foremost sculptors in Tuscany in the generation after Lorenzo Bartolini. His early experiments in naturalism attracted such hostile criticism that he was forced to abandon this style in favour of a sensual neo-Greek manner. His later works are marked by a richly expressive eclecticism....

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Marianne Marcussen

French writer and art critic. He studied briefly at the Collège Chaptal in Paris. In 1856 he became one of the driving forces behind the literary journal Réalisme, together with Jules Assézat (1832–76) and Dr Jean-Baptiste-Henri Thulié (1832–1916). Most of his art criticism dates from the 1860s and 1870s; from the outset it was particularly critical of the established art world. He frequented Parisian cafés such as the Café Guerbois and the Café de la Nouvelle Athènes, where he met the group of intellectuals around Champfleury, among them Gustave Courbet. In ...

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V. S. Turchin

Russian writer and theorist of Ukrainian birth. His work began to be published in 1876. He was a supporter of realism in art and was close to the Wanderers, on whose work he wrote critical essays, mainly analysing their group exhibitions. He posed for a number of paintings by Russian artists. His story ...

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Joanne Culler Paradise

French critic, writer and administrator. Although his formal education stopped short of a lycée degree, in his youth he steeped himself in the positivist, socialist and Romantic currents of the day. In the early 1880s he met his mentors: Georges Clemenceau (1841–1929), who preached evolutionary, socialist politics; and Emile Zola and Edmond de Goncourt, who inculcated in him their Naturalist literary theories. Geffroy also formed close friendships with Claude Monet, Auguste Rodin, J.-F. Raffaëlli, Félix Bracquemond and Eugène Carrière, all of whom helped to shape his aesthetic views....

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Gerardo Pérez Calero

Spanish painter and museum director. From 1846 he studied at the Real Academia de S Fernando, Madrid, under José de Madrazo y Agudo and Federico de Madrazo y Küntz. While working in Rome on a grant (1855–60), he came into contact with the circles around the Academia Española de Bellas Artes. He belonged to the generation of post-Romantic and Realist Spanish painters whose works are eclectic in genre. However, because of his training, milieu and political beliefs, he produced primarily history paintings. These are linear and superbly drawn, but, though incorporating many erudite references, they lack colour and luminosity. His finest works include ...

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S. J. Vernoit

Turkish painter, museum director and archaeologist. In 1857 he was sent to Paris, where he stayed for 11 years, training as a painter under Gustave Boulanger and Jean-Léon Gérôme. On returning to Turkey he served in various official positions, including two years in Baghdad as chargé d’affaires, while at the same time continuing to paint. In ...

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Paul Gerbod

French painter, museum director and writer. In 1815 he returned to France with his father, who had been a prisoner of war in Britain. He was a pupil at the Collège Bourbon in Paris and subsequently spent several years in Haute-Vienne, where he worked in the ironworks. He returned to Paris in ...

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Mariantonietta Picone Petrusa

Italian painter and critic. He was taught privately by Giuseppe Bonolis but first studied law. After taking his degree, however, he enrolled in 1855 at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Naples and also attended the independent art school run by the painters Tommaso De Vivo (...

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Anthony Páez Mullan

Venezuelan painter, author, diplomat and botanist. Ramón Páez was a son of José Antonio Páez, one of Bolívar’s most trusted generals and the colorful first president of Venezuela. Little is known of his childhood. Páez himself refers to his education in Caracas as a boy and later on in ...

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Bohemian painter, caricaturist, designer and administrator. He was the son of the liberal politician Anton Maria Pinkas and the son-in-law of the art historian Anton Springer. In 1849 he began his studies at the Academy of Fine Arts (Akademie Výtvarných Umění) in Prague, where in the previous year he had belonged to a group of students who were leaders in supporting the democratic revolution. In ...

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Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Portuguese writer and critic. His literary career began in 1870 with the publication of the periodical, As farpas, on which, until 1872, he collaborated with the writer José Maria de Eça de Queirós (1845–1900), through whom he discovered the new theories of Realism and Naturalism. According to Ramalho Ortigão, art should try to reproduce, with feeling, the truth presented in nature. Eventually, however, he rejected the more radical ideas of Courbet and Zola and espoused a sincere love only for the Naturalism of the Barbizon school. This latter form was introduced into Portugal by António Silva Porto, whose aesthetic programme was associated with Ramalho Ortigão’s work, and both were linked with the ...

Article

Jeremy Howard

Latvian painter, graphic designer, writer, critic and teacher. He was the son of a country blacksmith and at the age of sixteen moved to Riga, where he spent four years as a painter and decorator. He then worked as an extra in the Riga Latvian Society Theatre and briefly attended drawing classes at the German Trade School before entering the St Petersburg Academy of Arts in ...

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Sergey Kuznetsov

Lithuanian painter, administrator and writer. He qualified as a drawing teacher at the St Petersburg Academy of Arts and taught at the Warsaw Commercial College (1899–1905) while continuing his studies. He also studied in Paris (from 1905), Munich (1908–9) and Hamburg (...

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Jean-Pierre Leduc-Adine

French writer and critic . He was brought up in Aix-en-Provence, and arrived in Paris in 1858, where he frequented painters’ studios and visited the salons. Cézanne was a childhood friend to whom Zola dedicated his first article of art criticism, which appeared in L’Evénement in ...