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Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Born 1777, in Rome; died 1858.

Sculptor.

Carlo Albacini was inspired by Canova but sought to give his works a more Realist expression, which reduced them to exaggeration. His Realism ultimately bordered on coarseness, notably in some of his statuettes which appeared in the Chapel of Pescivendoli in Rome. Copies of statues of the antiquities are attributed to him, including ...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 11 November 1854, in Naples.

Sculptor.

Vincenzo Alfano was a pupil of Morelli and Palizzi. He was one of the most interesting personalities of the Italian Realist school. Abandoning Classical formulas, he sought to give life's emotional intensity to his terracotta objects. His work attracted both violent opposition and ardent support. His statue of ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1943, in Plougoumelen.

Sculptor, painter (mixed media).

Bauduin's sculptures, which have a clear geometric tendency, are often realised in plastic materials, such as synthetic resins, and in metal. Bauduin has taken part in group exhibitions, including: Salon des Grands et Jeunes d'Aujourd'hui, Salon de la Jeune Sculpture, Salon de Mai. He took part in ...

Article

Swedish, 20th century, male.

Born 1922, in Ovansjö.

Sculptor.

Bejemark produced abstract and mainly geometrical sculptures, with dimensions often bordering on the monumental. However, he also sculpted portraits, using a hyper-realist technique of polychrome bronze.

Stockholm (Moderna Mus.)

Stockholm, 20 April 1985...

Article

Dutch, 20th century, female.

Born 1945, in Amsterdam.

Sculptor.

After studying at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam, Saskia de Boer went to London just as Hyperrealism was exploding into fashion. She acquired notoriety in 1970 by creating a Mona Lisa in three dimensions.

London, 25 June 1986...

Article

Australian, 20th century, male.

Born 1940.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator.

Peter Booth passed from Abstract-Minimal painting to a violent Expressionism in 1977, at which time he realised his first Figurative painting. His works frequently depict human misfortunes and torments, in chaotic compositions tinged with religious sentiments....

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 26 March 1946, in Le Havre.

Sculptor, painter (mixed media). Low reliefs.

Bosser lives and works in Paris. He realises abstract works on paper, as well as low reliefs revealing the roughness of the material used.

He has taken part in group exhibitions, including: ...

Article

Ana Maria Rybko

Italian sculptor, teacher, composer and musician. He studied sculpture from 1880 at the Accademia Albertina di Belle Arti in Turin, under Odoardo Tabacchi, and initially adhered to the traditions of Naturalism, with Romantic and Renaissance influences. He later turned to Realism, making no concessions to the more avant-garde artistic tendencies of the 20th century. He established his reputation with a series of portraits of society personalities, including ...

Article

French sculptor and designer. He was one of the most prolific and versatile sculptors of the 19th century, producing portrait busts, monuments and ideal works, as well as exploiting to the full the commercial opportunities offered by developing technology for the mass production of small-scale sculpture and decorative wares. His style ranged from the unembellished Realism of his male portraits to the neo-Baroque exuberance of his architectural decoration, and his art is particularly associated with the amiable opulence of the Second Empire. He signed his works A. Carrier until ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1935, in Turin.

Sculptor.

Chrissotti worked under the direction of Umberto Mastroianni and was much influenced by the latter's musical studies. After a naturalist period, he became interested in the metamorphosis of forms, working in terracotta and coloured plaster. He created geometrical shapes and coloured objects using industrial materials....

Article

John M. Hunisak

French sculptor. Dalou ranks among the greatest sculptors of the 19th century, alongside Antonio Canova, François Rude, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux and Auguste Rodin. The son of a glovemaker, he was a modern urbanite who believed in the moral efficacy of craftsmanship and manual labour as well as the primacy of democracy and a secular social order. The imagery of his finest works bears witness to these beliefs....

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 26 February 1808, in Marseilles; died 10 February 1879, in Valmondois (Val-d’Oise).

Painter, lithographer, draughtsman, sculptor.

Realism.

Honoré Daumier was born to a modest Marseilles family who moved to Paris when Daumier was still a child. From bailiff’s errand boy, young Honoré graduated without enthusiasm to bookshop assistant. He was attracted to the Louvre and wanted to draw. His parents turned a deaf ear until Alexandre Lenoir, who created the Musée des Monuments Français and was an acquaintance of Daumier’s father, encouraged him to let his son follow his bent. The first trial, however, proved inconclusive, probably because conventional tutoring was ill-suited to the student’s temperament. Despite this, he managed to get a job under a lithographer named Ratelet. There he drew alphabets, ornaments for the covers of romances, and so on. He went on to work for the publisher Zéphirin Bélliard and then for Achille Ricourt, until he finally made a modest journalistic debut, collaborating on the ...

Article

Michel Melot

French graphic artist, painter, and sculptor.

Son of a Marseille glazier, frame-maker, and occasional picture restorer, Daumier joined his father in Paris in 1816. He became a bailiff’s errand boy and was then employed by a bookseller, but his real enthusiasm was reserved for drawing and politics. He studied drawing with ...

Article

Geneviève Monnier

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, pastellist, photographer and collector. He was a founder-member of the Impressionist group and the leader within it of the Realist tendency. He organized several of the group’s exhibitions, but after 1886 he showed his works very rarely and largely withdrew from the Parisian art world. As he was sufficiently wealthy, he was not constricted by the need to sell his work, and even his late pieces retain a vigour and a power to shock that is lacking in the contemporary productions of his Impressionist colleagues....

Article

Ettore Spalletti

Italian sculptor and writer. He was among the foremost sculptors in Tuscany in the generation after Lorenzo Bartolini. His early experiments in naturalism attracted such hostile criticism that he was forced to abandon this style in favour of a sensual neo-Greek manner. His later works are marked by a richly expressive eclecticism....

Article

Elizabeth Johns

American painter, sculptor and photographer. He was a portrait painter who chose most of his sitters and represented them in powerful but often unflattering physical and psychological terms. Although unsuccessful throughout much of his career, since the 1930s he has been regarded as one of the greatest American painters of his era....

Article

American, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 25 July 1844, in Philadelphia; died 25 June 1916, in Philadelphia.

Painter, sculptor. Nudes, portraits, genre scenes, sporting subjects.

Realism.

Thomas Cowperthwaite Eakins’ father was a writing master in Philadelphia. Between 1861 and 1866, he enrolled in a drawing course at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art and at the same time followed a course in anatomy at the medical faculty. At Jefferson Medical College, he attended and participated in dissections and produced studies of nudes. In 1866, he went to Paris, enrolled at the École des Beaux-Arts, and spent over three years working in Jean-Léon Gérôme’s studio. His meticulous attention to detail and taste for drawing gave him an advantage at the school, an institution that was still dominated by the art of Ingres. He also attended the atelier of Léon Bonnat, who stressed anatomical exactitude. After a trip to Spain, where he was impressed by Ribera and Velázquez, he returned to Philadelphia in 1870. In 1877, he was appointed professor of drawing at the Pennsylvania Academy of Art. In 1886, a dispute about his decision to use a male nude model in a mixed class led to his forced resignation. In the summer of 1887, he made a 10-week trip to the Dakota Badlands. He became an isolated painter, painting subjects acceptable to the larger public but where the introduction of nudes was unavoidable. An example is ...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 1930, in Vienna.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator, sculptor, collage artist, decorative designer. Scenes with figures, figures. Stage sets.

Groups: Hundsgruppe (Dog’s group), Phantastischer Realismus group.

Ernst Fuchs enrolled at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna in 1945. From 1946 to 1950, he was a pupil of Gütersloh, whom Salvador Dalí considered the most important painter of his time (after himself). In around 1950, he was one of the founders of the Viennese ...

Article

Latvian, 20th century, male.

Born 24 October 1962, in Riga, Latvian SSR (now Latvia).

Painter, graphic artist, multimedia artist. Allegorical subjects, abstraction and portraiture. Sculptural objects, conceptual installations.

Of the generation that came of age during Latvia’s transition from Soviet occupation to political independence, Kristaps Ģelzis distinguished himself as the most cerebral of that nation’s artists while, paradoxically, anchoring his work in intrinsic properties of base materials, the timelessness of simple forms, and labour-intensive craft. The son and younger brother of renowned architects, Ģelzis resolved to pursue another creative vocation, first studying violin while attending Riga’s 50th Secondary School, then taking preparatory classes for the Latvian Art Academy in lieu of attending the art high school. As a student in the academy’s department of graphic art ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 16 July 1953.

Sculptor. Figures.

Goepfert was influenced by his brother Alain. He took up sculpture in 1985. He models his realist figures directly in plaster or clay, without drawing them first, before casting them in bronze. He strives above all to express life and movement. He has taken part in various Paris Salons, including the Salon d'Automne, Salon des Indépendants and Salon des Artistes Français....