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David Bindman

English printmaker, painter and poet. His reputation as a visual artist increased during the 20th century to the extent that his art is as well known as his poetry (see fig.). Yet in his own mind Blake never completely separated the two, and his most original work is to be found in hand-printed books of prophecy, which developed a personal mythology of limitless intellectual ambition. In these books, text and design are completely integrated in what he called ‘illuminated’ printing. He also made many pen and watercolour drawings, prints in various media and a small number of tempera paintings, but even in these his broader aims were primarily theological and philosophical: he saw the arts in all their forms as offering insights into the metaphysical world and therefore potentially redemptive of a humanity he believed to have fallen into materialism and doubt....

Article

Michael Howard

French painter, illustrator, set designer and poet. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Guillaume Lethière from 1821. The Punishment of Mazeppa (1827; Rouen, Mus. B.-A.), inspired by the scene from Byron’s poem, in which Mazeppa is tied to the back of a wildly stampeding horse, is his most important early painting and one of the key images of the Romantic movement....

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G. A. Printseva

Russian painter, etcher, teacher and museum director of Italian birth. He was the son of the Swiss artist Antonio Baroffi Bruni (1767–1825), who moved to Russia with his family in 1807, taking the name Anton Osipovich Bruni. In 1809 he became a pupil at the St Petersburg Academy of Arts, where he studied under ...

Article

French painter, designer and interior decorator. Throughout his career he was an advocate of the importance of art and design for industry and manufacture. In 1830 he was appointed adviser to the Sèvres Porcelain Factory by the director Alexandre Brongniart (1770–1847). There Chenavard made cartoons for stained-glass windows, a stoneware ‘Vase de la Renaissance’ shown at the ...

Article

Angela L. Miller

American painter and poet of English birth. Cole was the leading figure in American landscape painting during the first half of the 19th century and had a significant influence on the painters of the Hudson River school, among them Jasper Cropsey, Asher B. Durand and ...

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Donald A. Rosenthal

French painter, illustrator and writer. His early training was as a theatrical scene painter and a designer of lithographic illustrations. In Bordeaux he studied with Pierre Lacour (ii) (1778–1859) and worked with Thomas Olivier (1772–1839), chief scene designer at the Grand-Théâtre. He subsequently studied in Paris in the studio of the landscape and history painter ...

Article

A. Ziffer

German designer, painter, teacher and theorist. A self-taught artist, he made several study trips to Italy and the Tyrol. In painting he found inspiration in late German Romanticism, before turning to the English Arts and Crafts Movement. His designs were exhibited in 1899 at the exhibition of the Bayerische Kunstgewerbeverein (Munich, Glaspal.) and in ...

Article

Arthur Channing Downs

American writer, horticulturist, landscape gardener and architect. From the age of seven he was trained in the family nursery garden by his elder brother Charles Downing (1802–85), an experimental horticulturist. Before he was 15, Downing came under the influence of André Parmentier (...

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Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

French sculptor, painter, etcher, architect and writer. The son of a decorative sculptor, he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in 1824 as a pupil of Charles Dupaty (1771–1825), moving in 1825 to the studio of James Pradier. Ingres also took an interest in his education, and Etex’s gratitude towards him and Pradier was later expressed in projects for monuments to them (that to Pradier not executed, that in bronze to Ingres erected Montauban, Promenade des Carmes, ...

Article

German writer, statesman, scientist, historian and theorist. By virtue of his prodigious literary output, his writings on art (notably in collaboration with Friedrich Schiller), his patronage as chief minister of Weimar, the extraordinary variety of his interests, and his sheer longevity, he had a profound influence on European culture....

Article

John Leighton

French painter and museum official. The son of a master mason, he revealed an early talent for drawing in his copies of his father’s collection of prints after François Boucher and Vernet family, §1. After studying with an unidentified Italian landscape painter, he became a pupil of ...

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Howard Caygill

German theorist. He was the most consistent and influential critic of German Enlightenment philosophy and aesthetic theory. His impeccable Enlightenment pedigree as a student of Kant at the University of Königsberg in the early 1760s and his acquaintance with Diderot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert during his visit to Paris in ...

Article

Serb, 19th century, male.

Born 1832, in Srpska Crnja; died 1878, in Belgrade.

Painter, poet, dramatist.

Jaksic painted in the Romantic style. He earned a meagre living as a schoolteacher, travelling from town to town. He painted heroes from Slav legends, portraits and religious and historical subjects....

Article

Therese Dolan

French art critic and journalist. His career began in 1818 with a pamphlet, Mes visites au Musée Royal du Luxembourg (Paris, 1818), in which he divided the history of painting in France into three ages: the golden age of Poussin and Claude, the period of decadence of Boucher and Carle Vanloo, and the era of revival of Joseph-Marie Vien and David. His most significant contributions to art criticism were his works on the Paris Salons, written between ...

Article

David Rodgers

English writer, connoisseur and collector (see fig.). He was the son of a clergyman from a wealthy dynasty of iron-masters. His father died in 1764, and shortly afterwards he inherited a considerable estate from his uncle, which ensured his financial independence. He was a sickly child and was educated at home, becoming well versed in Classical history, Latin and Greek. In ...

Article

French writer and critic. He was a pioneer of literary romanticism and an influential literary figure, whose paid work as a government official allowed him to produce novels, verse and essays. He also wrote art criticism, and the Salon of 1817 prompted no less than seven articles to ...

Article

Marie-Claude Chaudonneret

French painter. A pupil of Jean-François Durand (1731–after 1778) in Nancy and later of the miniature painter J.-B. Augustin in Paris (c. 1785–6), he began his career as a porcelain and miniature painter. In the latter capacity he exhibited in the Salon between ...

Article

James Stevens Curl

Scottish garden designer and writer. The son of a farmer, he was first apprenticed to a nurseryman and landscape gardener, moving to London in 1803 to set himself up as a garden designer. That year he published his ‘Hints…[on] Laying Out the Grounds of the Public Squares in London’ in the ...

Article

Göran Söderlund

Swedish painter. In 1875 he went to Stockholm, where he studied at the Konstakademi and at the art school of Edvard Perséus (1841–90). At the former, he met the painters Richard Bergh and Nils Kreuger, who became his lifelong friends. He spent his formative years in France (...

Article

Pontus Grate

French critic. In 1831 the originality, perspicacity and learning of his first Salon review secured him a leading position in French art criticism that he retained until his death. The first French writer to devote himself exclusively to art criticism, Planche set out to establish a conscientious and severe critical method. Initially this allowed him to reject the new prolific ...