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Article

Colette E. Bidon

French painter, illustrator and printmaker. He was taught by his father, Victor Bussière, a decorative painter in Mâcon. He went to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon and then to Paris, where he studied in the atelier of Alexandre Cabanel. During further studies under Puvis de Chavannes, he came into contact with Gustave Moreau. Symbolist paintings followed, drawing on French legend, as in the ...

Article

Charlotte Moser

American painter and illustrator. He first trained as an architectural draughtsman at the Academy of Design, Chicago (1878). After studying briefly at the Art Institute of Chicago, he went to New York, where he attended the Gotham School and the Art Students League (...

Article

Jean-Pierre de Bruyn

Belgian painter, sculptor, illustrator, and stage designer. He studied music at the Koninklijk Muziekconservatorium and sculpture at the Gewerbeschule, Ghent (after 1877). He visited Paris in 1887 and Italy in 1890, with a grant from the city of Ghent. He was deeply impressed by the masters of the Quattrocento, and was encouraged to take up painting after meeting Constantin Meunier (...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 23 October 1852, in Rheims; died 11 July 1931, in Paris.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, engraver, lithographer, draughtsman, illustrator, caricaturist, poster artist. Figure compositions, figures.

Impressionist group.

Jean Forain was the son of a painter and decorator and was apprenticed to a visiting card engraver. He studied briefly under Gérôme and Carpeaux at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and regularly visited the Louvre, where he copied works by the masters. It is said that for a time he made a precarious living by selling small drawings in the style of Grévin. He went on to collaborate on various publications as a draughtsman and columnist, starting in 1876 on ...

Article

Alicia Craig Faxon

French painter, printmaker and illustrator. Around 1860 he moved with his family to Paris, where he was taught by Jacquesson de la Chevreuse (1839–1903), Jean Baptiste Carpeaux and André Gill. He participated in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71) and was a friend of the poets Paul Verlaine and Arthur Rimbaud; the latter is the presumed subject of a portrait (...

Article

Dutch painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer and stained-glass artist. He trained at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam (1886–90), under the directorship of August Allebé. Having initially painted and drawn Impressionistic landscapes, he started working in the ’t Gooi region in 1892, where, influenced by Vincent van Gogh and Jan Toorop, he made a number of Symbolist drawings and lithographs. In ...

Article

Belinda Thomson

French printmaker, illustrator and painter. He became one of the original members of the Nabis as an art student at the Académie Julian, Paris, in 1888–9. He joined in the early group ventures such as printmaking, puppet plays and theatre design, but he was never involved with the more esoteric Symbolist aspirations of some of the group’s leading members. He first exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in ...

Article

Julius Kaplan

Belgian painter, illustrator, sculptor, designer, photographer and writer. He was one of the foremost Symbolist artists and active supporters of avant-garde art in late 19th-century Belgium. His wealthy family lived in Bruges from 1859 to 1864, moved to Brussels in 1865, where Khnopff remained until his death, and spent their summers at a country home in Fosset, in the Ardennes. Fosset inspired numerous landscapes that owe a strong debt to Barbizon-style realism (see ...

Article

Alberto Cernuschi

French painter, watercolourist and illustrator. Laprade had good basic training, first at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts at Montauban and later at the Académie Carrière in Paris. He exhibited first at the Salon des Indépendants in 1901 and later showed his work regularly at the Salon d’Automne and at the Salon des Tuileries. A ...

Article

Michèle Lavallée

French painter, illustrator, and sculptor. He went to Paris in 1878 to study under the painter Emile Bin until 1885, when he entered the atelier of Alexandre Cabanel. From 1883 onwards, he exhibited landscapes, genre scenes, and portraits (those of women and children being particularly popular) in oil and pastel at the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français....

Article

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born 1898.

Painter, copyist.

The details of Li Yongsen’s life are uncertain. He was known in the West mainly for his scenes of France and his copies of works by the Impressionist painters Renoir and Sisley.

Taipei, 22 March 1992: Scenes of France...

Article

Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

French sculptor, painter, designer and illustrator. He began his career as a painter and tapestry designer, but after c. 1900 devoted himself to three-dimensional work, becoming one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century. He concentrated almost exclusively on the nude female figure in the round, consciously wishing to strip form of all literary associations and architectural context. Although inspired by the Classical tradition of Greek and Roman sculpture, his figures have all the elemental sensuousness and dignity associated with the Mediterranean peasant....

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 23 January 1832, in Paris; died 30 April 1883, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, pastellist, engraver, lithographer, draughtsman, poster artist, illustrator. Figure compositions, figures, nudes, portraits, landscapes, urban landscapes, landscapes with figures, still-lifes.

Japonisme, Realism.

Impressionist group.

Édouard Manet was from an old bourgeois family: his father was a magistrate and his mother’s father was a diplomat. He was unavoidably shaped by his origins and, however revolutionary his work may have appeared, he retained the bearing and the sentiments of a ‘society gentleman’. As a child, he already felt an irresistible attraction to painting as an occupation. An uncle who was a colonel in the artillery, and who spent every spare moment of his leisure time filling the pages of a sketchbook, passed down to him his love for drawing and took him to museums. Having pursued his studies at Collège Rollin, Manet chose (rather than studying law) to enlist as a ship’s boy on a commercial vessel, the ...

Article

French writer, theorist and critic. Writing under the pseudonym of Camille Mauclair, his first book was Eleusis (1894). Though a comparative latecomer to Symbolism, he here expounded his version of its aesthetic. He broadly defined the symbol as ‘tout ce qui paraît’ and emphasized the importance of the dream. Mostly the work is influenced by Stéphane Mallarmé, whom he greatly admired, and is, in its philosophical aspects, derived from Arthur Schopenhauer. He was sympathetic to the Pre-Raphaelites, Edward Burne-Jones and others in England, and saw the Symbolists as achieving similar results in France....

Article

Piero Pacini

Italian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. At the age of 17 he enrolled at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Bologna and discovered contemporary art in books on Impressionism, Paul Cézanne, Georges Seurat and Henri Rousseau. He read with interest the articles by Ardengo Soffici in ...

Article

Giulio V. Blanc

Cuban painter, ceramicist and illustrator. She studied under Leopoldo Romañach (1862–1951) at the Academia de S Alejandro in Havana, where she was influenced by Impressionism. She graduated in 1924 and lived in Paris from 1927 to 1933, studying at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts and the Ecole du Louvre. She also studied composition and colour with the Russian Constructivist and stage designer ...

Article

Lija Skalska-Miecik

Polish painter and illustrator. In 1880–84 he studied in Warsaw at Wojciech Gerson’s Drawing School. From 1884 he regularly contributed illustrations to leading Warsaw journals such as Tygodnik Ilustrowany and Wędrowiec. In 1885, accompanied by his fellow artist Józef Pankiewicz, he went to St Petersburg and studied (...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 20 April 1850, in Paris; died 29 February 1924, in Paris.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes.

Impressionist group.

Jean-François Raffaëlli's father was a failed Italian businessman and Raffaëlli himself was, among other things, a church chorister, actor and theatre singer. He then studied under Gérôme at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He travelled to Italy, Spain and Algeria and on his return to France settled in Asnières....

Article

Madeleine Rocher-Jauneau

French painter and illustrator. On 9 November 1872 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon where he worked with the engraver J.-B. Danguin (1823–94) and on 19 March 1877 he was enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and joined Henri Lehmann’s studio, where he befriended Seurat. In ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1844, in Rouen; died 15 March 1907, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, illustrator, silhouettist. Figures, genre scenes.

Impressionist group.

After studies in Rouen, Henri Somm arrived in Paris in 1870, where he perfected his drawing technique. In 1879 and 1889 took part in the Impressionists Exhibitions held at Durand-Ruel in Paris. An illustrator, he contributed to the following presses: ...