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American photographer. Self-taught, Abbe started to produce photographs at the age of 12. From 1898 to 1910 he worked in his father’s bookshop and then worked as a reporter for the Washington Post, travelling to Europe in 1910. Having earlier produced photographs of ships and sailors for tourist cards, from ...

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Kyla Mackenzie

New Zealand photographer. Aberhart became a leading photographer in New Zealand from the 1970s with his distinctive 8×10 inch black-and-white photographs, taken with a 19th-century large format Field Camera. He is particularly well known for his images of disappearing cultural history, often melancholic in tone, in New Zealand....

Article

Patricia Strathern

French photographer and sculptor. He originally worked as a sculptor, and he turned to portrait photography under the influence of the Munich photographer Franz Hanfstaengel. Adam-Salomon’s antique poses, making much use of light and shade to give painterly effects, were inspired by Classical sculpture and painting and incorporated expensive fabrics and settings. He also favoured heavy retouching of the negatives, for which he was criticized by some contemporaries. He was, however, much admired for the imposing character of many of his portraits (e.g. ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1818, in La Ferté-sous-Jouarre (Seine-et-Marne); died 28 April 1881.

Sculptor, photographer. Busts, medallions.

Adam-Salomon studied under Vercelli and showed particular interest in photography. He exhibited as a sculptor for the first time at the Paris Salon of 1844. His best-known works include his busts of ...

Article

Julie Lawson

Scottish photographer. He studied medicine in Edinburgh (1829) and Paris, but returned to St Andrews in the 1830s. A member of the St Andrews Literary and Philosophical Society, he associated with the circle interested in photographic experimentation and theory. Adamson experimented with Talbot’s calotype process, introduced to Scotland by Sir David Brewster (...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1864, in Clarendon (New York); died 1926, in Mont Mikeno or Kabale, Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo).

Sculptor, photographer. Animals.

Carl Ethan Akeley began working as a taxidermist at the age of 17 at Ward's Natural Science Establishment in Rochester, New York. He later became associate curator at the Roosevelt American Museum of Natural History in New York, where he laid out the African rooms and the Hall of African Mammals was named after him. On trips to Africa for the museum, Akeley observed animals closely. In ...

Article

Lee Fontanella

Spanish photographer. He moved to Toledo c. 1862, and he and Fernando González Pedroso were the first two professional photographers to set up a permanent establishment there. His suite of 12 vistas de Toledo (Toledo, 1871) consisted of 14 photographs mounted on decorated passe-partouts. Alguacil is known for this format, which he enlarged for certain views contained in the 1870s series of publications of ...

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Erika Billeter

Italian family of photographers. From 1845 to 1850 Leopoldo Alinari worked in Florence for a wealthy lithographer, Giuseppe Bardi. With him he organized Fratelli Alinari, Presso Bardi, a small photographic laboratory in the Via Cornina, Florence. In a city that took a keen interest in the thriving photographic industry, their venture was soon successful. By ...

Article

Dutch, 19th century, male.

Born 13 September 1833, in Zalt-Bommel; died 2 February 1897, in Amsterdam.

Engraver, photographer.

Article

Mary Christian

English photographer, active in Italy. Born Isaac Atkinson, he went to Paris as a young man to study painting, and in 1838 he went to Rome, where he adopted the names William Nugent Dunbar and later James Anderson, and where he participated in the annual exhibition of the Società degli Amatori e Cultori delle Belle Arti. By ...

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Ismeth Raheem

Ceylonese photographer. His family had practised photography for three generations. His grandfather, Adolphus Wilhelmus Andree (b 1799), was one of the early pioneers of daguerreotypy in Ceylon, and his father, Adolphus William Andree, had a flourishing photographic business between the 1860s and 1880s with studios in the capital Colombo and the provincial towns of Jaffna, Galle and Matara. At 18, he was already working as an apprentice in the studio of an American photographer at Chatham Street, Colombo, using the ferrotype process (...

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 31 January 1819, in New York City; died 14 December 1888, in New York City.

Photographer, businessman.

E. & H.T. Anthony (firm).

Edward Anthony received instruction in photography from Samuel F.B. Morse, an early practitioner of the medium. By 1844...

Article

Elizabeth Edwards

Photography and anthropology emerged almost simultaneously in the third decade of the 19th century and have been entangled ever since. There are two major strands to anthropological or ethnographic engagements with photography. In the first, photography has functioned as a tool through which to explore anthropological questions about cultural production, from art making to agriculture, as well as the construction of social identity, such as gender and race. Studies that adopt this approach rely on photographs to provide empirical evidence for analysis. The second strand concerns the anthropology of photographic practices. This work has explored different cultural uses, styles, and social expectations of photography as a medium; it has addressed the nuances, similarities, and differences through which photography functions as a social medium. In this body of work it becomes clear how the value of photographs is not necessarily determined through the content of images but through their capacity as social objects to mediate social relationships. Around these issues of social value, memory, and history, anthropological or ethnographic photography has become a site for both cultural critique and cultural recuperation, especially by indigenous, First Nations, and diasporic communities....

Article

Micheline Nilsen

Genre of Photography that encompasses both practical documentation of Architecture and aesthetic expression. The scope of the genre has been broad, including exterior and interior views of élite, industrial, or vernacular buildings, and groups of structures in urban or rural settings. Although the beginnings of architectural photography date back to the origins of photography, the study of its history and a critical discourse are more recent developments. Study and discourse accompanied the emergence of an art market for photographs in the 1970s, the collection of architectural photographs by museums, and the ensuing publication of scholarship that investigated the intellectual significance and cultural contingency of photographers’ points of view when their lenses have focused upon architectural subjects....

Article

Mattie Boom

Dutch photographer and lawyer . He made the earliest photographs to be found in the Netherlands, daguerreotypes of his daughters and other members of his family. In the 1840s a number of daguerreotypists, mostly foreign, settled in Dutch towns as professional portrait photographers. Asser, however, remained an amateur and experimented with a variety of photographic techniques and genres. He took self-portraits, pictures of his daughters, his son, his wife and of his friend E. Bour, also a photographer, using the calotype process (...

Article

Spanish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 2 May 1851, in Murcia; died 27 July 1913, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman (including charcoal), illustrator, photographer. Figures, genre scenes, street scenes, local scenes (bullfighting), interiors with figures, horses.

Enrique Atalaya Gonzales was a pupil of German Hernandez Amores. He settled in Paris in 1886 and later became a naturalised French citizen. He was a popular genre painter, but he also worked as an illustrator for Parisian publishing houses, providing illustrations for the works of Cervantes, among others. He was a brilliant painter of typical Spanish scenes, such as bullfights, inn scenes and wild horses....

Article

Maria Morris Hambourg

French photographer. An only child of working-class parents, he was orphaned at an early age and went to sea. Determined to be an actor, he managed to study at the Conservatoire d’Art Dramatique in Paris for a year but was dismissed to finish his military service. Thereafter he acted for several seasons in the provinces but failed to distinguish himself and left the stage. An interest in painting but lack of facility led him to take up photography in the late 1880s. At this time photography was experiencing unprecedented expansion in both commercial and amateur fields. Atget entered the commercial arena. Equipped with a standard box camera on a tripod and 180×240 mm glass negatives, he gradually made some 10,000 photographs of France that describe its cultural legacy and its popular culture. He printed his negatives on ordinary albumen-silver paper and sold his prints to make a living. Despite the prevailing taste for soft-focus, painterly photography from ...

Article

French, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 12 February 1857, in Libourne, France; died 4 August 1927, in Paris.

Photographer. Landscapes, city scenes, genre scenes.

Orphaned by the age of five, Eugène Atget was raised by his maternal grandparents. Between 1878 and 1882 he attended the Conservatoire Nationale de Musique et de Déclaration while completing his compulsory military service. He began photographing by ...

Article

English photographer and scientist. The only daughter of the scientist John George Children (1777–1852), she was a pioneering photographer and the first person to publish a photographically printed and illustrated book. Her privately published British Algae, issued in parts from 1843 to 1853...

Article

Elizabeth Anne McCauley

French photographer. For more than 30 years Aubry worked as an industrial designer. In January 1864 he formed a Parisian company to manufacture plaster casts and photographs of plants and flowers. Although unsuccessful (he filed for bankruptcy in 1865), he continued to sell photographs to drawing schools throughout the 1870s. His albumen prints are often striking close-ups of natural forms taken with a flat perspective and symmetrical arrangement that was inspired by the lithographic plates traditionally used by industrial design students. The failure of Aubry’s ideas on the use of photographs in the industrial design process can be attributed to both the French government’s reluctance to introduce photography into art schools and the shift in French taste towards more abstract, simplified decorations for manufactured goods. His work is included in the collections of the Bibliothèque Nationale, the Bibliothèque des Arts Décoratifs and Musée d’Orsay, Paris, and the J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA....