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Arnold Berke

American architect and designer. Raised in St Paul, MN, Mary (Elizabeth Jane) Colter graduated in 1890 from the California School of Design in San Francisco, then taught mechanical drawing at a St Paul high school and contributed to local Arts and Crafts societies as lecturer and craftswoman. These pursuits nourished Colter’s love of Native American art and the Southwest, interests also fostered by her first professional projects—the interior of the Indian Building at the Santa Fe Railway’s Albuquerque station (...



Norman Bancroft-Hunt

Underground ceremonial chamber of stone blocks and/or adobe bricks used by prehistoric and modern Pueblo Indians of the North American Southwest. By c. ad 300 agricultural villages of pit houses (semi-subterranean, circular dwellings) had developed. By ad 750 the pit house had evolved into two distinct forms: surface dwellings, which eventually evolved into multi-roomed Pueblo complexes (...


G. Lola Worthington

Archaeological areas in eastern and southern North America reveal advanced mound building cultures from several different cultural phases. Around 1500 bc, several North American indigenous groups attained the sophisticated cultural “Woodlands” phase. For over a millennium, three principle cultural groups, the Adena, Hopewell and Mississippian, built elaborate advanced earthen structures and large temples in the Upper Ohio Valley of Kentucky and West Virginia. Accompanying the earthen monuments was an ambitious religious devotee system....