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Article

Maria Concepción García Sáiz

Italian family of engineers and architects. They were active in Spain and Spanish America in the service of the Spanish Habsburgs from 1559 to 1650. The most prominent member of the family was Juan Bautista Antonelli the elder (b Gaeteo, Italy, c. 1530; d...

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François-Auguste de Montêquin

Mexican architect and sculptor of Spanish birth. In 1541 he moved from his native city to Madrid, where he served as an apprentice to Luis de Vega, one of the architects working in the High Renaissance style for Emperor Charles V. Arciniega worked with Vega in the remodelling of the Alcázar at Madrid. At intervals between ...

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Ramón Gutiérrez

Spanish architect, active in South America. Both his father, Alonso (d ?1570), and his grandfather, Domingo, were architects; the latter was the Maestro Mayor of Toledo Cathedral (completed 1493). Francisco was considered one of the finest architects in Extremadura, where he was active on a wide range of schemes including the church of S Maria and the chapel of S Isabel (both Trujillo), patrician houses in Guevara, and a chapel between the cloisters in Guadalupe Monastery. In ...

Article

Biombo  

Sofía Sanabrais

Name used in Mexico and throughout Latin America for a folding screen. The word biombo is a transliteration of the Japanese word for folding screen—byōbu—an acknowledgement of its place of origin. The Japanese byōbu has long been a quintessential example of Japanese art and was a common diplomatic gift to foreign courts in the early modern period (...

Article

Annick Benavides

Italian painter and sculptor active in Peru. One of seven children born to Pablo and Cornelia Bitti, Bernardo Bitti commenced formal training in the arts at the age of 14 in Camerino and completed his training in Rome. He was inducted into the Society of Jesus as a Coadjutor Brother on ...

Article

Boccaro  

Gordon Campbell

Scented red earthenware brought originally by the Portuguese from Mexico; the word derives from Portuguese búcaro (clay cup). The term also denotes similar earthenware made in Portugal and Spain (especially Talavera) from the 16th to the 18th centuries, and the imitation made by Johann Friedrich Böttger...

Article

The indigenous people of the Caribbean that encountered incoming Europeans c. 1492 included a diverse range of cultural and ethnic groups on almost every island in the archipelago. Names attributed to these groups in the centuries since European contact have been and continue to be debated by archaeologists and ethno-historians. These native peoples exhibited different languages, settlement patterns, and material cultures....

Article

Spanish and Latin American cathedrals are distinguished by their broad hall-like interiors, their gilded and polychrome Retables, the central position of the enclosed choir (coro), and the pairs of monumental organs that flank each side of the choir. The construction of twin organs reached its apogee in the middle of the 18th century. Typically, these organs have two façades, one facing towards the choir and one facing out towards the lateral aisles. The earliest extant example of this design is found in the double-façade organ (...

Article

José Alcina Franch

Pre-Columbian city that flourished c. ad 1450–1540, 28 km (by road) north of Cuzco, Peru; excavated by José Alcina between 1968 and 1970. The town centre is on a high plateau, 3720 m above sea level, near Lake Piuray on the old road from Cuzco to the Yucay Valley. Chinchero was ‘founded’ as an Inca imperial city at the beginning of the reign of Tupac Inca Yupanqui (...

Article

Maria Concepción García Sáiz

Spanish painter and architect, active in Mexico. In 1568 he went from Spain to Mexico, where he was commissioned to paint the principal retable of the church of the Dominican monastery, Yanhuitlán, Oaxaca State, with the Annunciation, the Adoration of the Shepherds, the Adoration of the Magi...

Article

Teresa Gisbert

Term used to refer to the Peruvian painters of various ethnic origins active in Cuzco from the 16th to the 19th century (see fig.). When Viceroy Toledo reached Cuzco in 1570, he commissioned a series of paintings (destr.) to be sent to Spain, which included depictions of the conquest and capture of Atahuallpa (...

Article

Maria Concepción García Sáiz

Mexican family of painters of Spanish origin. Baltasar de Echave Orio the elder (b Zumaya, c. 1558; d Mexico City, c. 1620) arrived in Mexico from Spain c. 1580. He worked with his father-in-law, Francisco de Zumaya (also known as Francisco de Ibía and Francisco de Gambo), on the principal retable and the S Miguel retable in Puebla Cathedral in ...

Article

See Frias family

Article

Rafael Moreira and Carlos A. C. Lemos

Portuguese family of artists. (1) Nicolau de Frias, the son of a Vizcayan sculptor, founded a dynasty of architects who were active for four generations through the 17th century directing official architectural training in Lisbon: his son Teodósio de Frias (d 1634) was Master of Royal Works, designer of the austere doorway in the style of the Escorial at the monastery of S Maria, Belém (...

Article

Emmanuel Ortega

(fl 16th century). Mexican painter. Gerson’s life and oeuvre has been linked to the Apocalypse of St John frescoes (1562) in the Franciscan church of Tecamachalco in the state of Puebla. The images were first painted on amate (bark paper made from the ...

Article

(b ?Ayacucho, Huamanga, c. 1535–50; d ?nr Ayacucho, c. 1616).Native Andean chronicler and manuscript illustrator, active in Peru. Guaman Poma de Ayala authored an illustrated chronicle titled El primer nueva corónica i buen gobierno (1615; Copenhagen, Kon. Bib.). The manuscript, considered a principal resource for information on Andean pre-Hispanic and viceregal culture, was divided into three sections: a history of the Inca Empire, an account of the Spanish Conquest, and counsel to King Phillip III on colonial reform in ecclesiastical, political, and economic matters. It is distinguished by its indigenous authorship and graphic illustrations. The 398 full-page line drawings included in the chronicle expressed European visual templates and indigenous Andean conceptual logic. The manuscript was in the collection of the Danish Kongelige Bibliothek since at least ...

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Mexican, 16th – 17th century, female.

Born to a family originally from Zumaya; died before 1623.

Painter.

Isabel de Ibia worked in Mexico City, where she married B. de Echave.

Mexico City (Cathedral): several works

Article

Inca  

Ann Kendall

A Pre-Columbian culture of the Central Andean area of South America; the early Inca people are recognizable in the archaeological record of the Late Intermediate Period (c. ad 1000–1476), from the 12th century onwards. The Inca empire flourished in the 15th century and early 16th. In a more restricted sense the term refers to the ruling élite and its supreme head, the Sapa Inca. The Inca are alone in having successfully politically unified the vast area of the Central Andes, coastlands and adjacent regions. Their empire endured for only 90 years; it extended 3500 km from north-west to south-east and approximately 320 km inland from the South American coast (...

Article

Peter W. Stahl

Island and adjacent mainland areas around the Gulf of Guayaquil in south coastal Ecuador, important in Pre-Columbian trade. The region was inhabited by the Punáes, who were possibly confederated with ethnically similar littoral groups into a Pre-Columbian league of merchants. A principal article of commerce was the shell of the venerated Pacific thorny oyster ...

Article

W. Iain Mackay

Spanish architect and sculptor active in Peru. He was trained as a sculptor by Cristóbal Velázquez (d 1616), a Mannerist of the school of Alonso Berruguete. He arrived in Lima c. 1599 and carved the life-sized reliefs of Christ and the Apostolate (...