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Eduardo Williams

Pre-Columbian culture of north-west Mexico. It belongs to the area between the Sinaloa River in the north and the Río Grande de Santiago in the south, probably extending as far south-east of this area as the Chapala Basin of Jalisco–Michoacán, and it flourished c. ad...



Jane Feltham

Pre-Columbian culture of South America. It centred on the Chancay Valley of the central Peruvian coast, ranging north and south to the Fortaleza and Lurín valleys, and is known for its distinctive pottery and textile styles. Chancay culture flourished between c. ad 1100 and 1470...



John R. Topic

Pre-Columbian kingdom on the north coast of Peru; the term is also used of an associated culture and art style. Chimú art developed, from earlier roots, during the period c. ad 850–1000, flourished from c. 1000 to 1470, and continued, with modifications, into Spanish colonial times. The Chimú capital, ...


Culture area of the Isthmian region of Latin America, which is more broadly classed by archaeologists as part of the Intermediate area (see South America, Pre-Columbian, §II). It comprises the Atlantic watershed and central highlands areas of Costa Rica, from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean and from the Nicaraguan to the Panamanian border. Environments include the low coastal wetlands of the Caribbean and the Pacific drylands, numerous river valleys and plateaus, and an almost continuous chain of mountains and volcanoes running north–south. Despite a diversity of ecological niches, the archaeological remains of the region are similar enough to be considered as a single cultural group. The prehistoric archaeological record begins ...



Beatriz de la Fuente

Region and culture of Mesoamerica, that produced distinctive Pre-Columbian architecture, sculpture, pottery and shell ornaments. From the Middle Pre-Classic period (c. 1000–c. 300 bc) to the Late Post-Classic period (c. ad 1200–1521) the Huastec people occupied the Gulf Coast of Mexico; today they inhabit southern Tamaulipas, northern Veracruz, eastern San Luis Potosí and parts of Querétaro, Hidalgo and Puebla....


George Bankes

Pre-Columbian culture of South America that extended throughout several valleys on the south coast of Peru and flourished between c. ad 1000 and 1476. The Ica–Chincha pottery style was first recognized by the German archaeologist Max Uhle, and regional variations have since been defined by archaeologists from the University of California at Berkeley, especially by ...



Jeremy A. Sabloff and John W. Fox

Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples, whose civilization flourished in parts of what are now Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and El Salvador from c. 300 bc to the 16th century ad. The ancient Maya region is usually divided by archaeologists into two areas, the Lowlands and the Highlands, according to geographical and cultural differences (...



Term commonly used for a people and an aesthetic tradition that flourished during the Late Post-Classic period (c. ad 1200–1521) in the Southern Highlands of Mesoamerica, in the western portion of what is now the state of Oaxaca, Mexico (see also Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian, §I...


Helen Perlstein Pollard

Pre-Columbian kingdom and associated culture that flourished in Mexico c. ad 1300–1521, in an area corresponding to the modern regions of Michoacán, adjacent Jalisco, Guanajuato and north-western Guerrero.

Tarascan art and culture are mostly known from archaeological evidence, supplemented by ethnohistoric and historic sources (in particular the ...