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Article

Eduardo Williams

Pre-Columbian culture of north-west Mexico. It belongs to the area between the Sinaloa River in the north and the Río Grande de Santiago in the south, probably extending as far south-east of this area as the Chapala Basin of Jalisco–Michoacán, and it flourished c. ad...

Article

Chancay  

Jane Feltham

Pre-Columbian culture of South America. It centred on the Chancay Valley of the central Peruvian coast, ranging north and south to the Fortaleza and Lurín valleys, and is known for its distinctive pottery and textile styles. Chancay culture flourished between c. ad 1100 and 1470...

Article

Chimú  

John R. Topic

Pre-Columbian kingdom on the north coast of Peru; the term is also used of an associated culture and art style. Chimú art developed, from earlier roots, during the period c. ad 850–1000, flourished from c. 1000 to 1470, and continued, with modifications, into Spanish colonial times. The Chimú capital, ...

Article

Culture area of the Isthmian region of Latin America, which is more broadly classed by archaeologists as part of the Intermediate area (see South America, Pre-Columbian, §II). It comprises the Atlantic watershed and central highlands areas of Costa Rica, from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean and from the Nicaraguan to the Panamanian border. Environments include the low coastal wetlands of the Caribbean and the Pacific drylands, numerous river valleys and plateaus, and an almost continuous chain of mountains and volcanoes running north–south. Despite a diversity of ecological niches, the archaeological remains of the region are similar enough to be considered as a single cultural group. The prehistoric archaeological record begins ...

Article

Huastec  

Beatriz de la Fuente

Region and culture of Mesoamerica, that produced distinctive Pre-Columbian architecture, sculpture, pottery and shell ornaments. From the Middle Pre-Classic period (c. 1000–c. 300 bc) to the Late Post-Classic period (c. ad 1200–1521) the Huastec people occupied the Gulf Coast of Mexico; today they inhabit southern Tamaulipas, northern Veracruz, eastern San Luis Potosí and parts of Querétaro, Hidalgo and Puebla....

Article

Gordon R. Willey, David M. Jones, Gordon Brotherston, Peter W. Stahl, Elizabeth P. Benson, Warwick Bray, H. Stanley Loten, Ursula Jones, Karen Olsen Bruhns, Frederick W. Lange, Sara Lunt, Annemarie Seiler-Baldinger, Elizabeth K. Easby, M. E. Moseley, W. Iain Mackay, Susan A. Niles, Pauline Antrobus, Duccio Bonavia, George Bankes, R. José Berenguer, Daniel Schávelzon, Irmhild Wüst, Tania Andrade Lima, José R. Oliver, Ann M. Mester, Luis A. Borrero, Colin McEwan, Anthony Alan Shelton, William J. Conklin, Peter Cloudsley and Joanne Pillsbury

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Article

Robert D. Drennan, H. B. Nicholson, Elizabeth Baquedano, Peter W. Stahl, Eloise Quiñones Keber, Christine Niederberger, Muriel Porter-Weaver, David M. Jones, Paul Gendrop, Richard F. Townsend, H. Stanley Loten, Phil C. Weigand, Emily Umberger, Beatriz de la Fuente, Elizabeth Hill Boone, >Nelly Gutiérrez Solana, Elizabeth K. Easby, Anthony Alan Shelton, Christian F. Feest, Warwick Bray, Kieran Costello, Roberto Rivera y Rivera, José Alcina Franch, Patricia Rieff Anawalt, Lawrence G. Desmond and Hasso Von Winning

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Article

George Bankes

Pre-Columbian culture of South America that extended throughout several valleys on the south coast of Peru and flourished between c. ad 1000 and 1476. The Ica–Chincha pottery style was first recognized by the German archaeologist Max Uhle, and regional variations have since been defined by archaeologists from the University of California at Berkeley, especially by ...

Article

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Article

Gordon R. Willey, David M. Jones, Gordon Brotherston, Peter W. Stahl, Elizabeth P. Benson, Warwick Bray, H. Stanley Loten, Ursula Jones, Karen Olsen Bruhns, Frederick W. Lange, Sara Lunt, Annemarie Seiler-Baldinger, Elizabeth K. Easby, M. E. Moseley, W. Iain Mackay, Susan A. Niles, Pauline Antrobus, Duccio Bonavia, George Bankes, R. José Berenguer, Daniel Schávelzon, Irmhild Wüst, Tania Andrade Lima, José R. Oliver, Ann M. Mester, Luis A. Borrero, Colin McEwan, Anthony Alan Shelton, William J. Conklin, Peter Cloudsley and Joanne Pillsbury

In 

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Article

Robert D. Drennan, H. B. Nicholson, Elizabeth Baquedano, Peter W. Stahl, Eloise Quiñones Keber, Christine Niederberger, Muriel Porter-Weaver, David M. Jones, Paul Gendrop, Richard F. Townsend, H. Stanley Loten, Phil C. Weigand, Emily Umberger, Beatriz de la Fuente, Elizabeth Hill Boone, >Nelly Gutiérrez Solana, Elizabeth K. Easby, Anthony Alan Shelton, Christian F. Feest, Warwick Bray, Kieran Costello, Roberto Rivera y Rivera, José Alcina Franch, Patricia Rieff Anawalt, Lawrence G. Desmond and Hasso Von Winning

In 

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Article

Gordon R. Willey, David M. Jones, Gordon Brotherston, Peter W. Stahl, Elizabeth P. Benson, Warwick Bray, H. Stanley Loten, Ursula Jones, Karen Olsen Bruhns, Frederick W. Lange, Sara Lunt, Annemarie Seiler-Baldinger, Elizabeth K. Easby, M. E. Moseley, W. Iain Mackay, Susan A. Niles, Pauline Antrobus, Duccio Bonavia, George Bankes, R. José Berenguer, Daniel Schávelzon, Irmhild Wüst, Tania Andrade Lima, José R. Oliver, Ann M. Mester, Luis A. Borrero, Colin McEwan, Anthony Alan Shelton, William J. Conklin, Peter Cloudsley and Joanne Pillsbury

In 

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Article

See Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian

Article

Gordon R. Willey, David M. Jones, Gordon Brotherston, Peter W. Stahl, Elizabeth P. Benson, Warwick Bray, H. Stanley Loten, Ursula Jones, Karen Olsen Bruhns, Frederick W. Lange, Sara Lunt, Annemarie Seiler-Baldinger, Elizabeth K. Easby, M. E. Moseley, W. Iain Mackay, Susan A. Niles, Pauline Antrobus, Duccio Bonavia, George Bankes, R. José Berenguer, Daniel Schávelzon, Irmhild Wüst, Tania Andrade Lima, José R. Oliver, Ann M. Mester, Luis A. Borrero, Colin McEwan, Anthony Alan Shelton, William J. Conklin, Peter Cloudsley and Joanne Pillsbury

In 

See South America, Pre-Columbian

Article

Robert D. Drennan, H. B. Nicholson, Elizabeth Baquedano, Peter W. Stahl, Eloise Quiñones Keber, Christine Niederberger, Muriel Porter-Weaver, David M. Jones, Paul Gendrop, Richard F. Townsend, H. Stanley Loten, Phil C. Weigand, Emily Umberger, Beatriz de la Fuente, Elizabeth Hill Boone, >Nelly Gutiérrez Solana, Elizabeth K. Easby, Anthony Alan Shelton, Christian F. Feest, Warwick Bray, Kieran Costello, Roberto Rivera y Rivera, José Alcina Franch, Patricia Rieff Anawalt, Lawrence G. Desmond and Hasso Von Winning

In 

See Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian

Article

Gordon R. Willey, David M. Jones, Gordon Brotherston, Peter W. Stahl, Elizabeth P. Benson, Warwick Bray, H. Stanley Loten, Ursula Jones, Karen Olsen Bruhns, Frederick W. Lange, Sara Lunt, Annemarie Seiler-Baldinger, Elizabeth K. Easby, M. E. Moseley, W. Iain Mackay, Susan A. Niles, Pauline Antrobus, Duccio Bonavia, George Bankes, R. José Berenguer, Daniel Schávelzon, Irmhild Wüst, Tania Andrade Lima, José R. Oliver, Ann M. Mester, Luis A. Borrero, Colin McEwan, Anthony Alan Shelton, William J. Conklin, Peter Cloudsley and Joanne Pillsbury

In 

See South America, Pre-Columbian

Article

Maya  

Jeremy A. Sabloff and John W. Fox

Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples, whose civilization flourished in parts of what are now Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and El Salvador from c. 300 bc to the 16th century ad. The ancient Maya region is usually divided by archaeologists into two areas, the Lowlands and the Highlands, according to geographical and cultural differences (...

Article

Robert D. Drennan, H. B. Nicholson, Elizabeth Baquedano, Peter W. Stahl, Eloise Quiñones Keber, Christine Niederberger, Muriel Porter-Weaver, David M. Jones, Paul Gendrop, Richard F. Townsend, H. Stanley Loten, Phil C. Weigand, Emily Umberger, Beatriz de la Fuente, Elizabeth Hill Boone, >Nelly Gutiérrez Solana, Elizabeth K. Easby, Anthony Alan Shelton, Christian F. Feest, Warwick Bray, Kieran Costello, Roberto Rivera y Rivera, José Alcina Franch, Patricia Rieff Anawalt, Lawrence G. Desmond and Hasso Von Winning

Term used to designate the Pre-Columbian region comprising present-day central and central-southern Mexico, the Yucatán Peninsula, Guatemala, Belize and El Salvador, and parts of Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Culturally it was one of two New World areas where civilization developed (the other being the central Andes, home of the Incas; ...

Article

Mixtec  

Term commonly used for a people and an aesthetic tradition that flourished during the Late Post-Classic period (c. ad 1200–1521) in the Southern Highlands of Mesoamerica, in the western portion of what is now the state of Oaxaca, Mexico (see also Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian, §I...

Article

H. B. Nicholson

Stylistic and iconographic tradition in Mesoamerica during the Post-Classic period (c. 900–1521).

The term was coined in 1938 by the American archaeologist George Vaillant for what he variously defined as a ‘culture’, ‘civilization’ or ‘culture complex’ that developed after the Teotihuacán collapse in the region of the modern Mexican state of Puebla and the western portion of Oaxaca, an area known as the Mixteca (from the predominant indigenous language of the region). He hypothesized that Mixteca–Puebla diffused into the Basin of Mexico during what he termed the ‘Chichimec’ period, providing ‘the source and inspiration of Aztec civilization’. He believed that aspects of the complex spread widely throughout Mesoamerica during its final major era, the Post-Classic, which he suggested should be labelled the ‘Mixteca–Puebla period’....