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Ramón Vargas

Mexican architect, theorist and writer, of Japanese descent. The son of a Japanese ambassador in Mexico, he studied philosophy, espousing neo-Kantianism and becoming politically a socialist. He became a supporter of Functionalism, with its emphasis on the social applications of architecture, and was a founder, with ...

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Christophe Spaenjers

Set of financial methods, instruments, and business models that are used in the Art market. Important developments since the 1960s include the spreading availability and use of art price information and price indexes (see Art index), the emergence of loans collateralized by artworks, repeated efforts to create art investment structures, and a strong growth in art market advisory services provided by wealth managers and new entrepreneurs (...

Article

Haitian, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active in France.

Born 1965, in Bogotá.

Painter (mixed media), installation artist.

Élodie Barthélémy spent extended periods in Bolivia, Sri Lanka and Morocco before settling in France. Her work was featured in the African Effects ( Suites Africaines) exhibition devoted to contemporary African art which was held at the Couvent des Cordeliers in Paris in ...

Article

Biombo  

Sofía Sanabrais

Name used in Mexico and throughout Latin America for a folding screen. The word biombo is a transliteration of the Japanese word for folding screen—byōbu—an acknowledgement of its place of origin. The Japanese byōbu has long been a quintessential example of Japanese art and was a common diplomatic gift to foreign courts in the early modern period (...

Article

Fernando Carrasco Zaldúa

City in northern Colombia. It is located on the Caribbean coast in northern Colombia, in the department of Bolívar, with a population in the late 20th century of c. 500,000. Founded in 1533 on a strategically important bay, throughout the colonial period it was the principal port for trade with Spain and the importation of slaves from Africa. This commercial activity and the immediate need to fortify the city from attack were reflected in a rapid consolidation that made it the first well-established site on Colombian territory. It achieved city status in ...

Article

Mayching Kao

Chinese painter and art critic. Chan moved with his family to Hong Kong in 1910, becoming an active member of the Hong Kong arts scene in the 1920s. A self-taught artist of Western-style painting, Chan painted realistic watercolours of the local scenery. From the early 1960s he experimented with a variety of styles and techniques inspired by international avant-garde movements, ranging from geometric abstractions painted with a spray gun to configurations achieved by splashing and dribbling paint on canvas. In the 1970s Chan won critical acclaim for his dreamlike fantasy paintings populated with colourful creatures, both real and imaginary, and inspired by the hustle and bustle of Hong Kong life. Chan has been called the myth-maker of Hong Kong, and his complex iconography as well as his heterogeneous artistic origins are significant for the light they shed on the cultural history of Hong Kong....

Article

Emerald  

Gordon Campbell

Green variety of Beryl, mined in Upper Egypt and India from antiquity and in Colombia both before and after the Spanish Conquest. Nero is said to have watched gladiatorial contests through an emerald. The two best-known emeralds are the Devonshire Emerald (London, Nat. Hist. Mus.) and the Patricia Emerald (New York, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.). The most famous historical emeralds are the 453 emeralds (totalling ...

Article

George Bankes

Pre-Columbian culture and art style that flourished in northern coastal Peru during the Early Intermediate period, between c. 300 bc and c. ad 200. It was named after the site of Gallinazo (Sp. ‘turkey buzzard’) in the Virú valley, which was excavated by the American archaeologist ...

Article

Gensler  

Sara Stevens

American architectural firm started by Arthur Gensler Drue Gensler, and Jim Follett in 1965 in San Francisco, CA. M. Arthur Gensler jr (b Brooklyn, New York, 1935) attended Cornell University to study architecture (BArch, 1957). The firm began doing build-outs for retail stores and corporate offices, and initially established itself in the unglamorous area of interior architecture. Thirty years later and without mergers or acquisitions, it had grown to become one of the largest architecture firms in the world, having pioneered the global consultancy firm specializing in coordinated rollouts of multi-site building programmes. By ...

Article

Since the 1980s art markets have developed rapidly outside of Europe and the USA. In the so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) this development has been particularly dynamic. With aggregate sales estimated at €11.5 billion, China is the second largest market for art and antiques in the world after the USA (McAndrew ...

Article

Veerle Poupeye

Jamaican painter. He came to the attention of the Institute of Jamaica in the late 1930s, when he also received his early training from the Armenian artist Koren der Harootian (1909–91). He was assistant to Edna Manley during her art classes at the Junior Centre, Kingston, in the early 1940s. He went on to study at the Ontario College of Art, Toronto, and at the Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, London. He was founding tutor in painting at the Jamaica School of Art and Crafts, Kingston, in ...

Article

Lelia Delgado

Venezuelan painter of Chinese birth. In 1956 he entered the Escuela de Artes Plásticas ‘Julio Arraga’ in Maracaibo, and in 1958 he travelled to Paris to study at the Ecole Supérieure des Beaux-Arts. He returned to Venezuela in 1962 and held his first one-man show in ...

Article

Alberto González Pozo

Mexican architect, teacher and writer, of Russian descent. In 1926 he settled in Paris, where between 1929 and 1935 he studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Georges Gromort. He moved to Mexico in 1942, where he combined editorial work on the periodical Arquitectura México...

Article

W. Iain Mackay

Peruvian painter. He was born to a Japanese father and a Peruvian mother, and the influence of the former came to have some bearing on his art. He studied at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Lima until 1960, and from 1962 to 1964...

Article

Lamanai  

H. Stanley Loten

Site of extensive Pre-Columbian Maya settlement in northern Belize, on a low ridge on the west shore of the New River Lagoon at its northern end, where the lagoon drains northwards along a winding jungle river. It is a commanding location that has obvious strategic advantage for the control and exploitation of the river passage north to Chetumal Bay. Archaeological excavations, which have sampled approximately 10% of the structures mapped, indicate that the site was occupied continuously from the middle Pre-Classic period (...

Article

Roberto Pontual

Brazilian painter of Japanese birth. At the age of ten he was taken by his family to Brazil, where he first worked in the coffee plantations in the interior of São Paulo State. After moving to the state capital he painted his first pictures c....

Article

Joan Kee

Taiwanese conceptual artist, active also in the USA. Lee spent his childhood in Taichung, where he studied Chan Buddhism from the age of eight. At 12, Lee spent time among Taiwanese expatriates in the Dominican Republic, and two years later moved to the USA, where he later studied biology at the University of Washington, Seattle. He transferred, however, to the California College of Arts and Crafts in Oakland, CA, where he focused on architecture and textiles (...

Article

Linda Mowat

Term for a colourful appliqué blouse worn by Kuna Indian women on the mainland and San Blas Islands of Panama and in the Darien region of north-western Colombia. Mola is the Kuna word for cloth, but it also applies to the woman’s blouse and the front and back panels from which it is made. ...

Article

Xavier Moyssén

Mexican painter, draughtsman and sculptor. Although identified with the Mexican school of painting, he was also greatly influenced by oriental art—his father was Japanese and his mother Mexican—especially in his landscapes and in ink drawings in the traditional manner of Japanese artists. He experimented with diverse techniques of painting and had notable success working with high-temperature colour ceramics, for example in ...

Article

Gustavo Navarro-Castro

Venezuelan painter and printmaker. He first studied at the Escuela de Artes Plásticas ‘Cristóbal Rojas’, Caracas (1954–9). Between 1962 and 1965 he studied engraving in China; this period was of fundamental importance for perfecting his engraving techniques and for developing the use of black and white that is so characteristic of his work. Late in ...