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Marco Rendeli

Modern name of an Etruscan settlement near Viterbo, Italy. It is situated on a small tufa plateau bounded on three sides by streams, one of which runs red. Excavations conducted by the Swedish Institute of Classical Studies during the 1960s and 1970s uncovered the tufa foundations of buildings that comprised various sectors of an ancient town. These provide some of the most extensive archaeological evidence relating to Etruscan domestic architecture and urban organization. The site was already inhabited in the ...

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Marco Rendeli

Italian town near the Tyrrhenian coast c. 40 km north-west of Rome. The Etruscan city of Caisra, usually known by its Roman name, Caere, was situated on a tufa plateau bounded by two streams, extending north-east of modern Cerveteri. The site is especially important for the extensive Etruscan necropolises on the surrounding hillsides (...

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Chiusi  

Marco Rendeli

Italian town c. 165 km north of Rome. It is situated on a tufa hill and surrounded by extensive Etruscan necropolises. Beneath the streets of the modern town runs a labyrinth of Etruscan galleries. Ancient Camars (known by its Latin name, Clusius) was one of the members of the Etruscan 12–city league and an important centre midway between southern and northern Etruria. Many local finds are displayed in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Chiusi....

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Tom Rasmussen

Italian town c. 54 km north of Rome, dramatically situated on a tufa plateau isolated by stream-cut gorges. Beyond the town are numerous Etruscan necropolises with rock-cut chamber tombs.

In ancient times Civita Castellana, then called Falerii, was the principal city of the Falisco-Capenate region. Although the Faliscans seem to have been racially distinct from the Etruscans and spoke a dialect of Latin, culturally and politically they were (and appear to have considered themselves) part of Etruria. In the wars between Rome and Veii, for example, Falerii was a staunch ally of the latter, and after the destruction of Veii in ...

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Marco Rendeli

Modern name of an Etruscan city, the ancient name of which is unknown. Situated c. 50 km south of Bologna, in the central valley of the River Reno on a terrace called Pian di Misano, at the exit of the Apennine mountain passes, it was part of the Etruscan colonization of the plain around the River Po in the second half of the ...

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Marco Rendeli

Site of an Etruscan building complex near Siena, Italy. The single large building is on raised ground controlling the valley of the River Ombrone, to which it is connected by a tributary. It is usually considered to have been an aristocratic palace, but it may possibly have been a sanctuary. One of the most important sites in northern Etruria, it was excavated by a team from Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania....

Article

Tom Rasmussen

Italian village situated on a promontory c. 15 km north of the port of Piombino. In ancient times Populonia was an Etruscan city and the only major Etruscan centre sited directly on the coast (all other ‘coastal’ cities were in fact several km inland). There was already an important settlement there at the end of the Bronze Age, and in Etruscan times there were two main centres of habitation: on the summit of the acropolis hill at Poggio del Molino and at its foot on the Bay of Baratti. The acropolis had its own ashlar wall; the lower town was also defended by an outer wall, which effectively cut off the whole of the peninsula. Few remains of the buildings in either area have been uncovered, although excavations at Poggio del Molino, begun in ...

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Pyrgi  

Marco Rendeli

Etruscan town on the Tyrrhenian coast c. 53 km north-east of Rome. It was one of the ports of Cerveteri (Caere) and thus an important centre for Etruscan trade and naval power in the Mediterranean. Pyrgi was inhabited from the Bronze Age, but its development as a port dates from the ...

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Marco Rendeli

Site of an Etruscan city c. 10 km from Grosseto, Italy. It is situated on two elevated points, once an island in the shallow gulf that became, in Roman times, the salt-water Lake Prilius and later degenerated into malarial swamps, drained and cultivated in modern times. The settlement dates back to the ...

Article

Marco Rendeli

Site of an Etruscan town on a tufa plateau c. 15 km south-west of Viterbo, Italy. Some scholars have identified it as ancient Contenebra. Both the town and its necropoleis have been excavated by the Swedish Institute at Rome. The earliest evidence of habitation dates from the Middle Bronze Age, and by the Late Bronze Age there was a village of large oval huts. This was succeeded during the Early Iron Age by a village of similar oval-plan huts (...

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Marco Rendeli

Site of one of the most important Etruscan cities, on a hill c. 5 km from the Tyrrhenian coast and c. 92 km north-west of Rome. The modern town of Tarquinia, known as Corneto until 1922, is on a hill slightly to the west of the ancient site. The legendary founder of Tarquinia was Tarchon (Strabo: ...

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Veii  

Marco Rendeli

Etruscan site c. 20 km north of Rome, set on a triangular tufa plateau bounded by two streams and accessible only from the north-west. Veii was apparently the largest city of the Etruscan twelve-city league, with an extensive territory and control of the River Tiber to the south. Excavations at Veii began in the 18th century, and the site has now been systematically explored. The earliest, small settlements on the site were Early Iron Age, and these villages later combined to form a substantial centre. The necropoleis contain chamber tombs, mostly for cremation burials, but, as elsewhere in Etruria, inhumation became more common in the Orientalizing period and rock-cut tombs under large tumuli were constructed. The ...

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Marco Rendeli

Site of an Etruscan city, now a village, on a hilltop c. 18 km north-west of Grosseto, Italy. In ancient times the city overlooked Lake Prilius, as did nearby Rusellae. There are few excavated remains: a main street c. 3 m wide, crossed obliquely by two smaller roads, has been uncovered. The buildings were small, crowded mud-brick or stone structures, as at Veii and San Giovenale. The city walls (?6th century ...

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Vulci  

Marco Rendeli

Site of Etruscan city near Montalto di Castro, Italy. It occupies a tufa plateau overlooking the lower reaches of the River Fiora c. 120 km north-west of Rome and c. 15 km inland from its ancient port, Regisvilla, on the Tyrrhenian coast. Vulci was a member of the Etruscan 12-city league but is seldom mentioned in ancient sources, and most evidence relating to its pre-Roman history consists of finds from its surrounding necropoleis. Already a substantial settlement by the Late Bronze Age, Vulci flourished during the 9th and 8th centuries ...