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Simon Lee

French painter and draughtsman. In 1678 he was apprenticed to Guy-Louis Vernansal (1648–1729); he later became a pupil of Jean Jouvenet and in 1684–5 of Bon Boullogne. By 1684 he was enrolled at the Académie Royale, Paris, and a year later won the Prix de Rome with his ...

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Jörg Garms

French architect and writer. He maintained the tradition of the Grand Style in France between Jules Hardouin Mansart, who was born in 1646, and Ange-Jacques Gabriel, who died in 1782. His work also provided an important bridge between that of Louis Le Vau in the mid-17th century and those of the architects of the Piranesian generation of Neo-classicists in the mid-18th century, such as Etienne-Louis Boullée, whom he influenced....

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Ana Maria Rybko

Italian painter. At the age of 15 he was a pupil of Giuseppe Passeri in Rome and afterwards lived for a decade in northern Italy, especially in Turin. After returning to Rome he studied geometry and perspective with Andrea Pozzo. His style was first based on that of Carlo Maratti, but without the monumentality and tempered by the influence of Benedetto Luti; then he became a strong exponent of the Rococo, as can be seen in a series of light and charming decorations in Roman churches....

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Françoise de la Moureyre

French sculptor and bronze-caster. He came from a family of goldsmiths of Flemish origin who settled in Paris in the early 17th century. Early biographers state that he trained with Michel or François Anguier and at the Académie Royale. He spent six years at the Académie de France in Rome, where he is said to have studied above all the sculpture of Bernini. This was followed by four years in Venice. He applied for admission to the Académie in ...

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Robert Neuman

French architect and urban planner. The most influential French Baroque architect during the Régence, he was Premier Architecte du Roi between 1708 and 1734. Financial constraints limited his work for the Crown, but he built many hôtels for the nobility, involved himself in numerous urban planning schemes and was frequently consulted by patrons abroad, particularly in Germany....

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Robert Neuman

French architect. He was the most important member of a family of architects active in Paris. His early work included adding a storey to the Hôtel de Sillery (1712) and additions to the Hôtel de Vendôme (1715) in the Rue d’Enfer, but his most significant contribution was the design of two ...

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Carola Wenzel

German family of artists. From the 16th century to the 18th the Drentwett family of Augsburg produced over 30 master gold- and silversmiths who received commissions from monarchs, nobility and the wealthy bourgeoisie of all parts of Europe. Members of the family were active in many fields, including cast and repoussé gold- and silverwork, engraving, enamelling and even wax modelling. The founder of the family’s reputation, ...

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Christian Dittrich

German painter, draughtsman and teacher. He was a cousin and pupil of Samuel Bottschild, to whom he was apprenticed until 1672 and with whom he travelled to Italy in 1673–7, to study the works of Italian masters and ancient sculptures. After his return he settled in Dresden, where he was appointed court painter by Elector ...

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Birgit Roth

Italian master builder and architect. In the early 1690s he was a master builder at the court of Prince John Adam of Liechtenstein in Vienna, where he worked at the Liechtenstein town palace, firstly under Domenico Martinelli and later (1705–6) completing it to his own plans, the staircase showing his influence most strongly. Gabrieli was summoned to Ansbach in ...

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French painter. He was a pupil of Louis Boullogne (ii). In 1695 he won the Prix de Rome and subsequently lived in Rome for two years. Because of a lull in royal patronage, Galloche was obliged, on his return to Paris, to accept commissions from churches and monasteries. Between ...

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Marianne Roland Michel

French draughtsman, printmaker and painter. He was the son of an embroiderer and painter of ornaments, who doubtless trained him before he entered the Paris studio of Jean-Baptiste Corneille about 1690; there he learnt to paint and etch. In 1710 he was approved (agréé...

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Bohemian painter. He was born into a weaver’s family, who, as Moravian Brethren, were forced to emigrate from Bohemia to Pezinok, Slovakia. Having met the artist Benedikt Claus (1632/3–1707), he left home at 15 to join him in Vienna, and three years later accompanied him to Italy. He worked in Venice and other north Italian towns before settling in Rome, where he made a meagre living by copying portraits. Although he attempted genre and historical paintings, portraiture became his main work. His influences ranged from prominent Venetian painters such as Bernardo Strozzi, Johann Carl Loth and Giuseppe Ghislandi to Anthony van Dyck and Hyacinthe Rigaud. Through perseverance he established his own studio in Rome, ...

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Fausta Franchini Guelfi

Italian sculptor and wood-carver. In 1680 he entered the workshop of his uncle, the sculptor Giovanni Battista Agnesi, as an apprentice, but he also attended the workshop of the furniture-maker Pietro Andrea Torre (d 1668). By 1688 he already had his own workshop in partnership with ...

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Oreste Ferrari

Italian painter and silversmith. He was important to the history of painting in Naples in the transitional period between the 17th and 18th centuries. His elegant art encouraged the movement away from Baroque drama towards a more tender, rocaille style in harmony with the earliest manifestations in Naples of the Arcadian school of poetry and of the Enlightenment. He painted frescoes, altarpieces and allegorical and mythological pictures....

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French architect, designer and illustrator. He was in the first rank of architects during the great period of interior decoration in France during the first half of the 18th century. Appointed by the Duc d’Orléans as his chief architect and designer during the Regency (...

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William Hauptman

Swiss painter. He was the founding member of a family of painters who worked in Locarno and father of the better-known painter Giuseppe Antonio Felice Orelli (1700–70/74). For most of his life Antonio Baldassare Orelli worked in the region of Locarno, although there is some evidence that he was also active in Como, painting mostly altarpieces and church or secular decorations. No official oeuvre has been established; many works remain attributed to him without precise dating or adequate documentation. His style is exemplified by two frescoes (...

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Bernard Aikema

Italian painter. With Sebastiano Ricci and Jacopo Amigoni he was the most important Venetian history painter of the early 18th century. By uniting the High Renaissance style of Paolo Veronese with the Baroque of Pietro da Cortona and Luca Giordano, he created graceful decorations that were particularly successful with the aristocracy of central and northern Europe. He travelled widely, working in Austria, England, the Netherlands, Germany and France....

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French family of cabinetmakers of Dutch origin. Bernard van Risamburgh (i) (b Groningen, c. 1660; d Paris, 2 Jan 1738) was active in Paris before 1694. The rediscovery of his work makes an important contribution to the analysis of the furniture of the period, providing a striking illustration of the transition from the Baroque to the Louis XV style. Risamburgh used tortoiseshell and brass marquetry in a manner quite different from that of André Charles Boulle. He often collaborated with the ...

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Ulrike Knall-Brskovsky

Austrian painter and draughtsman. He is most notable for large-scale religious and secular decorative schemes, and his career heralded the important 18th-century German contribution to late Baroque and Rococo fresco painting. He was probably taught by his mother, who was a painter of wooden sculpture. Between ...

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Vernon Hyde Minor

Italian sculptor. He was one of the last great Roman sculptors to practise in the Grand Manner. His career began in the late Baroque period and continued into the early Rococo or Barocchetto (as it came to be known for Italian art). There are elements of both periods in his style, yet he favoured the earlier, more dynamic and universalizing way of expressing artistic ideas....