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J. J. Martín González

Spanish palace that stands beside the rivers Tagus and Jarama in the province of Madrid, 47 km south of the capital. It was intended as a spring and summer residence for the royal family and is renowned for its gardens and fountains. The summer residence built at Aranjuez in ...

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Andreas Kreul

German architect, draughtsman, landscape designer and painter. He studied from 1778 to 1783 at the University of Göttingen and the Royal Danish Academy in Copenhagen, where he was awarded four prizes. His early designs included drawings for the hothouse of the botanic gardens in Copenhagen and a lecture room at Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin. While visiting Paris in ...

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M. I. Andreyev

Estate situated 20 km west of Moscow. It was first recorded in 1537 as the village of Upolzy, and renamed Arkhangel’skoye after a brick church dedicated to the Archangel Michael was built in 1667 to replace a wooden one. From 1703 to 1810 the estate belonged to the princes Golitsyn and from ...

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Susan B. Taylor

French architect and landscape designer. He had a distinguished career as a royal architect at the courts of Louis XV and Louis XVI. Although his fame rests on his accomplishments as a landscape architect, his mercurial talents are perhaps best characterized in his drawings for interior decoration and court festivals. After studying physics under the Abbé Nollet at the Collège de Navarre, Bélanger attended the Académie Royale d’Architecture in Paris between ...

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Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the son of a court gardener who worked first in Gotha and then in Württemberg. He was originally intended to become an architect; in 1747 Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg sent him to train in Paris where, under the influence of painters such as Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher, he turned to painting. The eight-year period of study in Rome that followed prompted Beyer to devote himself to sculpture, as he was impressed by antique works of sculpture and was also influenced by his close contacts with Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his circle. He also served an apprenticeship with ...

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Peter Fidler

French architect and landscape designer, active in Austria. He trained in Paris under Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni, whom he followed to Vienna in 1760. There he worked for the Crown Prince (later Emperor Joseph II (reg 1765–90)), and in 1776 he became Court Architect with responsibility for work in the suburbs of Vienna. Besides numerous architectural monuments, including a triumphal arch (...

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Patrick A. Snadon

American architect. From the 1830s to the 1850s he was one of the most influential architects in the USA. His work ranges from major government and institutional buildings to ornamental garden structures; his main contribution to American architecture was his introduction of the European Picturesque in his designs for Italianate and Gothic Revival country houses and cottages. With his partner, ...

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Mario Bencivenni

Italian architect, landscape designer and teacher. He studied architecture at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence under Gasparo Maria Paoletti, the leader of the Tuscan Neo-classical school, and won prizes for his projects in 1797; in 1801 he became a professor of architecture there and presented a project for a Pantheon of famous men to the Accademia. In ...

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Gérard Rousset-Charny

French architect and designer. He was the son of the gardener at the royal château of Choisy-le-Roi and attended Jacques-François Blondel’s school of architecture, the Ecole des Arts, winning third place in the Prix de Rome competition of 1759. He spent five years in Rome (...

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James Yorke

English partnership of cabinetmakers formed in 1758 by William Ince (b ?London, c. 1738; d London, 6 Jan 1804) and John Mayhew (b 1736; d London, May 1811). Ince was apprenticed to John West (fl 1743–58) of Covent Garden, London, from ...

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Barbara Mazza

Italian architect, engineer and landscape designer. He was a prominent Neo-classical architect but was also a noted eclectic, much admired, for example, by Pietro Selvatico, and he introduced the taste for the romantic garden to Italy. He attended courses in architecture and figure drawing at the Accademia Clementina, Bologna (1789–9). This school, which was in the forefront of theatre design and technique, provided a stimulating and enlightened cultural environment; his teachers included ...

Article

Kuskovo  

M. I. Andreyev

Palace and park 10 km south-east of the centre of Moscow. From the early 17th century until 1917 it was owned by the Sheremet’yev family (see Sheremet’yev, Pyotr (Borisovich), Count). By the mid-1750s a large formal park had been created, with a parterre, a radial system of avenues and a network of ponds and artificial canals. Each avenue led to a pavilion or sculpture. In ...

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Valeria Farinati

Italian architect, architectural editor and expositor, landscape designer, draughtsman and cartographer. His work represents the transition from late Venetian Baroque to Neo-classicism, which his studies of Palladio did much to promote in its early stages. His style, however, was never entirely free of the Baroque elements acquired during his formative years....

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N. A. Yevsina

Russian family of architects and landscape designers. Vasily (Ivanovich) Neyelov (b 8 Jan 1722; d Tsarskoye Selo [now Pushkin], 19 Jan 1782) was a pupil of Mikhail Zemtsov and Savva Chevakinsky, and he went to England in 1770 to study landscape design. On his return to Russia he worked at Tsarskoye Selo (...

Article

D. O. Shvidkovsky

Imperial summer residence and accompanying town, 25 km south of St Petersburg and 3 km from Pushkin, Russia. In the mid-18th century the estate was used for hunting, but in 1777 Catherine II (reg 1762–96) gave it to her son, the future Emperor Paul I (...

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Maria Natália Correia Guedes

Residence near Lisbon, Portugal. The main construction began in 1746 under the direction of the Infante Dom Pedro of Braganza (1717–86), uncle and subsequently king-consort (as Peter III) to Mary I. It became the official royal residence from 10 November 1794 until 27 November 1807...

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Margherita Azzi Visentini

Italian architect, garden designer, teacher and writer. After studying mathematics he became the pupil of the architect Tommaso Temanza. From 1778 to 1781 he undertook a study trip to Italy, France, England, Belgium and the Netherlands. The diary of his travels records his itinerary, new acquaintances and impressions. In Italy he remained in Rome for over a year, forming a lasting friendship with Antonio Canova and Giacomo Quarenghi and also visiting Pompeii, Paestum and Caserta. In England he was one of the first Italians to visit such famous landscape gardens as Stowe, The Leasowes and Blenheim, and he admired the work of Inigo Jones while remaining unimpressed by contemporary English architecture. In France, however, he expressed admiration for some buildings and for the gardens of André Le Nôtre. After early commissions in Paris and Rome to design settings for banquets in the residences of the respective Venetian ambassadors, in ...

Article

Andrzej Rottermund

German architect and landscape gardener, active in Poland . He worked in Dresden from 1747 and was appointed Clerk of Works (Kondukteur) in the Saxon Office of Works. He probably travelled to Italy in 1755 and lived in Poland from 1756, where in 1772 he was appointed Court Architect to ...