1-15 of 15 results  for:

  • Eighteenth-Century Art x
  • South/Southeast Asian Art x
Clear all

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered....

Article

Besakih  

D. J. Stuart-Fox

Balinese Hindu temple (pura) complex. It is situated on the south-western flank of the volcano Gunung Agung, Bali’s highest mountain, in the north-east of the island. Associated probably since prehistoric times with the Lord of the Mountain, now identified with the Hindu god Shiva, it has been a dynastic temple of several royal families since at least the 15th century. The complex consists of 22 temples, spread along three parallel ridges over a distance of more than a kilometre. The complex was not planned as an entity but seems to have been constructed piecemeal, and the overall structure that links the temples is more ritual and symbolic than physical. The annual cycle of more than 70 rituals culminates in the enormous centennial Ekadasa Rudra ceremony....

Article

Patrick Conner

English painter. Although long rumoured to be Irish, Chinnery was brought up in London, where he showed a precocious talent as a portrait painter in the traditions of Romney and Cosway. His grandfather, the calligrapher William Chinnery sr, was the author of Writing and Drawing Made Easy, Amusing and Instructive...

Article

Hemis  

W. A. P. Marr

Buddhist monastery c. 45 km south-east of Leh in Ladakh, India. Founded by King Senge Namgyel in the 17th century, Hemis became the leading monastery in the region of the Tibetan Drukpa sect. Its buildings comprise chortens (stupas), mani walls, monastic dwellings and a large rectangular courtyard used for the annual monastic dance ceremony. This court is surrounded by a balcony with a throne used by the head lama on such occasions; small paintings of saintly figures appear on the rear wall of the balcony. Within the court are four tall poles decked with prayer flags and yak tails. On the right-hand side are two large temples, the Dukhang and the Chökhang; each is two storeys high and preceded by a wooden verandah containing Tibetan-style paintings of protector deities....

Article

Nadia Tscherny

English painter. He first attended classes at William Shipley’s Academy in the Strand, London, and from 1758 to 1765 was apprenticed to Richard Wilson (about whom he published a short biographical essay in 1790). Hodges followed Wilson’s classical landscape style periodically throughout his career, but, particularly during his travels, he also occasionally abandoned it in favour of freer handling, bolder juxtapositions of colour and a more empirical response to the natural world....

Article

Kalna  

Walter Smith

Town and temple site in West Bengal, India, about 80 km north of Calcutta. Located on the banks of the Bhagirathi River, it was once an important port and commercial centre, but by the late 19th century its importance had declined owing to the silting up of the river and the opening of the East Indian Railway. It is now best known for several temples built during the 18th and 19th centuries by wealthy landowners, merchants and officers of local governors. Many are dated by inscription. Built of brick, they are decorated with dense arrangements of terracotta reliefs depicting scenes from the ...

Article

Hugh Belsey

English painter, active in India. Following a varied training at Shipley’s, St Martin’s Lane, and the Duke of Richmond’s Academies, he painted portraits, reminiscent of Reynolds’s, in Oxford and the Midlands. His most ambitious portrait, stylistically similar to the work of Francis Cotes, is Lady Frances Harpur and her Son Henry...

Article

Manaku  

B. N. Goswamy

Indian painter, elder son of the painter Pandit Seu and brother of Nainsukh. Manaku figures in the controversial colophon of a famous Gīta Govinda series of 1730. Although no place name is given in the colophon, it is more than likely that Manaku continued to work near his father in the small but lively principality of Guler. In ...

Article

Sheila S. Blair, Jonathan M. Bloom and R. Nath

Dynasty of Central Asian origin that ruled portions of the Indian subcontinent from 1526 to 1857.

The dynasty’s name Mughal derives from the word Mongol, as the founder (1) Babur (‘tiger’) was a Chaghatay prince in Central Asia who was descended on his father’s side from the Mongol warlord Timur (...

Article

B. N. Goswamy

Indian painter. He was the younger son of Pandit Seu. He remains, justly perhaps, the Pahari painter about whom most is known. Growing up in an atmosphere of experimentation and change, Nainsukh seems to have matured early and taken enthusiastically to the fluent naturalism of Mughal painting that came to the hill region at this time. Moving much further in this direction than did his father or elder brother, ...

Article

Purkhu  

B. N. Goswamy

Indian painter. Often associated with the court of Kangra and its most famous ruler, Maharaja Sansar Chand (reg 1775–1823), he seems to have shifted his family’s residence from Kangra to the tiny village of Samloti when the Maharaja was forced to surrender the town and fort of Kangra to the Sikhs in ...

Article

B. N. Goswamy

Indian painter. He was the father of the painters Manaku and Nainsukh. He was probably attached to the court of Raja Dilip Singh (reg c. 1695–1741) of Guler, although no work signed by him, or securely dated, is known. However, inscriptional evidence marks him out as the head of one of the most important families of painters in the Pahari region. Firmly rooted in the tradition of painting as practised in his family, Pandit Seu seems to have travelled outside the hills or at least to have come into active, fruitful contact with the painters from the plains working in the naturalistic, late Mughal manner. To this work he responded slowly and carefully from the middle of his career. The honorific term Pandit, often attached to his name and occurring even on a portrait sketch of his that has survived, suggests that the family to which he belonged came from Brahmin stock but, having professionally taken to painting, eventually fell from caste and merged in the carpenter–painter caste groups generally called ...

Article

Robert L. Hardgrave jr

Flemish printmaker and painter. He pursued his early career in Europe as a marine painter, but political unrest and his own insecure position led him to seek his fortune in India. Residing in Calcutta from 1791 to 1804, Solvyns undertook the work for which he is best known, ...

Article

M. A. Claringbull

Sacred city and pilgrimage centre on the banks of the Ganga River between the Barna, or Varuna, and Asi rivers in Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the most holy of the seven sacred cities of Hinduism (the others being Ayodhya, Mathura, Hardwar, Kanchipuram, Ujjain and Dwarka) and has been the focus of Brahmanical learning and religious ...

Article

Geoffrey Ashton and Lin Barton

German painter, active in England. Born Johannes Josephus Zauffaly, he was the son of Anton Franz Zauffaly (1699–1771), Court Cabinetmaker and Architect in Regensburg to Alexander Ferdinand, Prince of Thurn and Taxis. After an apprenticeship in Regensburg under the painter and engraver Martin Speer (...