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Article

German, 10th century, male.

Illuminator.

This Tegernsee monk is mentioned as the writer of a psalter made for an aristocratic lady called Heilwich. The work has not been preserved, but the dedicatory verses by Froumund von Tegernsee are still in Munich. A miniature in a collection of the national library, Munich, is attributed to an Adalpertus and dates from the 11th century, but it is not improbable that it is by this monk....

Article

Italian, 9th – 10th century, male.

Active during the 9th or 10th century.

Illuminator.

There is a manuscript by this artist, the Epistola Fulberti, in the Biblothèque Nationale, Paris.

Article

German, 11th century, male.

Died 1056.

Illuminator, copyist.

At first an ordinary monk in the monastery of Tegernsee, Ellinger became abbot and encouraged his monks to cultivate the art of calligraphy and illumination. Known to be by him are miniatures in the four gospels, and a painting showing Jesus Christ offering his hand to the Pope that is in a manuscript dated ...

Article

Ervene  

British, 10th century, male.

Illuminator, calligrapher.

Attributed to this artist are not only the copying, but the painting of the initials and ornaments of the famous manuscript preserved in the British Museum under the title Latin Gospels of King Canute.

Article

Spanish, 11th century, male.

Illuminator.

Madrid (Biblioteca Nacional): miniature

Article

Flemish School, 11th century, male.

Active in Liègec.1081.

Sculptor, illuminator.

This artist was a monk at the abbey of St-Hubert in the Ardennes.

Article

Spanish, 11th century, male.

Illuminator.

This artist painted miniatures and decorations for a commentary by Beatus on the Apocalypse, and illustrated the Apocalypse of St-Sever.

Article

Gerhard  

French, 10th century, male.

Illuminator.

This artist worked in Tours and illuminated the poems of Baudri or Bauderich, Abbot of Borgueil.

Article

French, 11th century, male.

Died 1010.

Illuminator.

A monk at St-Germain-des-Près, Heldricus illuminated a manuscript at the beginning of which he is depicted kneeling before St Germain. This work is in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris

Article

Flemish School, 11th century, male.

Born in Flanders; died 1076.

Illuminator.

This artist was Bishop of Salisbury.

Article

10th century, male.

Calligrapher, illuminator.

In 949 the scribe Jaquinto copied and illuminated a missal now at Monte Cassino. His illustrations include many pictures of dogs, birds and fish.

Article

Italian, 11th century, male.

Calligrapher, illuminator.

According to D'Agincourt, Johannes was a priest who wrote and illuminated an Exultet, a missal in two volumes in the possession of the Barberini Library, Rome. We know that he was a priest from an inscription on the side of the second volume. ...

Article

Martin  

Spanish, 11th century, male.

Miniaturist.

Between 1056 and 1086 he enriched with miniatures two books of Commentaries on the Apocalypse by Beato de Liebana.

Article

Notker  

Swiss, 10th century, male.

Died 976, in St Gall.

Calligrapher, illuminator.

There seem to have been several monks of this name in the abbey of St Gall, leading to some confusion between them. Notker Labeo (literally, 'thick lips'; born around 950?) translated works by Boethius, Aristotle, Pope Gregory I and others into German. He is said to have been the first to use the angular Gothic script and to have introduced it into German writing. It is conceivable that he was the same person as Notker Balbulus ('the Stammerer'; b. 840?), who wrote the ...

Article

British, 11th century, male.

Died 1099.

Illuminator.

A native of Normandy, Osmund went to England with William the Conqueror. He moved to the episcopal seat of Salisbury, where he founded a library in which he was actively engaged in calligraphy; he himself wrote a Ordinal...

Article

Sancho  

Spanish, 10th century, male.

Active in the second half of the 10th century.

Illuminator, priest.

Sancho was a priest. In collaboration with Florencio, he illuminated a Bible belonging to the Collegiate Church of S Isidoro, León.

Article

German, 11th century, male.

Active at Tegernsee (Bavaria) in 1031.

Illuminator.

Article

Sigo  

French, 11th century, male.

Active at Fougères in 1055.

Sculptor, illuminator (?).

Sigo was a monk.

Article

James D’Emilio

Benedictine abbey near Burgos, Spain, noted for its Romanesque cloister. The abbey, documented in ad 919 with a gift from Count Fernán Gonzalez, was restored and reformed during the abbacy of St Dominic of Silos (1041–73). A contemporary manuscript from Silos (Paris, Bib. N., MS. n.a.lat. ...

Article

Sintram  

Swiss, 9th – 10th century, male.

Active in St Gall in the 9th and 10th centuries.

Illuminator.

Sintram was one of the most important illuminators of his time and was active from 885. He illuminated the initials of the Evangelium Longum.