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Article

T. I. Zeymal’

Buddhist monastery of the 7th century ad to first half of the 8th, in the valley of the Vakhsh River, 12 km east of Kurgan-Tyube, southern Tajikistan. During this early medieval period it belonged to Vakhsh (U-sha in Chinese sources), one of the 27 domains of Tokharistan. Excavations between ...

Article

Doncho  

Korean, 7th century, male.

Active in the early 7th century.

Painter.

Doncho was a Korean Buddhist monk from the state of Koguryo, who probably arrived in Japan in 610, bringing with him the knowledge of making colours, paper and ink. In this way not only Buddhist art but also a new technique and new materials were introduced into Japan, and would subsequently form the basis of Japanese art. According to the guide of the Horyu-ji temple in Nara in the 1920s, the murals in the ...

Article

Erluin  

French, 9th century, male.

Active in Tours.

Miniaturist.

This artist illustrated religious books.

Article

Chinese, 9th century, male.

Active in the middle of the 9th century in Chengdu (Sichuan).

Painter. Religious subjects. Murals.

Fan Qiong was a painter of religious subjects. He produced many mural paintings after Buddhism was restored in China in 850. His brushstrokes were said to be like wire....

Article

Don Denny

Book containing the four canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. The illustration of these manuscripts was an important art form during the early medieval period in western Europe and at all times in the history of the Eastern Church. The oldest extant decorated Gospel books are of the 6th century ...

Article

Hakuka  

Korean, 6th century, male.

Painter.

Buddhism arrived in Japan from China (via Korea) in the second half of the 6th century AD. With it came Buddhist art and the techniques and materials on which Japanese art would be built. Although nothing is known of the life of Hakuka, he is known to have been one of the Korean artists who, together with monks and architects, went to settle in Japan in 588. As such, he contributed to the spread of Buddhist art in Japan. He came from the Korean kingdom of Paekche, known in Japanese as Kudara....

Article

Han Gan  

Chinese, 8th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 8th century.

Painter. Horses.

Although Han Gan painted figures, notably Buddhist frescoes, he is known principally as a horse painter, and the subject was elevated to the status of a genre partly on account of him. The importance of this genre may be explained by the significant role horses played during the Tang dynasty in China (618-907); the tool of conquest and of expansion towards central Asia, they were directly linked to the expansion of the Chinese empire’s geographical and cultural horizons. In addition, they were associated with various aristocratic entertainments, such as polo, hunting and jousting, and they were particularly prized at court, where huge, splendid stables were maintained. The imperial stables were home to 40,000 horses when Han Gan was summoned to work there. The best artists were invited to do portraits of the emperor’s favourite mounts, especially as a large number of these horses were sent to the capital as tribute by the distant regions of Ferghana and Khotan, and the paintings also immortalised the tribute paid by foreign nations to the Chinese court. As such, they take on a historical dimension....

Article

French, 9th century, male.

Active in Rheimsc.800.

Painter. Religious subjects.

This scribe is credited with miniatures depicting, among other subjects, St Gregory and St Remy.

Article

Greek, 9th century, male.

Died 867, in Rome.

Painter.

This Greek painter of the Byzantine School suffered persecution under the iconoclastic Emperor Theophilus, who had him flogged for painting religious images. After recovering, the saint continued to paint pictures of the Virgin and Jesus.

Article

Chinese, 8th century, male.

Activec.730-760.

Born in Jiangan (Shensi).

Painter.

Lu Lengjia is often mentioned as the most important pupil of Wu Daozi (active in about 720-760). He is known for his mural paintings in Buddhist temples, and more generally for works on religious subjects. The municipal museum in Osaka has in its collection a painting of the Ming period which was a copy of a scroll by Lengjia: ...

Article

French, 9th century, male.

Active in Cambrai (Nord).

Painter. Religious subjects.

A painter of religious pictures, Madalulfus was responsible for the paintings in the refectory of the abbey of Fontenelles St-Vaudrille.

Article

John Osborne

Situated in the Forum Romanum, at the foot of the Palatine Hill, S. Maria Antiqua is an early medieval church inserted into a pre-existing complex of classical buildings. It was excavated by Giacomo Boni in 1900. The original structure, dated by brick stamps to the late years of the emperor Domitian (...

Article

N. B. Nemtseva

Town in Uzbekistan. Located south of the Aq Sai range (Zeravshanskiy Khrebet) in the Kashka River basin, the town was part of southern Sogdiana in ancient times. In early medieval times the main town in the region was known as Kish, but, after it was destroyed by the Mongols, a new town grew up around the remains of the abandoned settlement at the end of the 13th century. In the 14th century the small unfortified town was renamed Shahr-i Sabz (Pers. ‘green town’). The Timurid ruler Timur was born in the nearby village of Khwaja-i-Ghar, and in the 1360s and 1370s Shahr-i Sabz became his winter quarters and during his reign the second royal residence after Samarkand. In ...

Article

Shinzai  

Japanese, 9th century, male.

Died 860.

Painter.

Shinzai was a pupil of En-Chin. A painter of religious subjects, he is known for his portrait of Kobo Daishi.

Article

Patsy Vanags

Site of a Roman temple incorporated into an Early Christian or early medieval church, c. 15 km north of Spoleto, Italy. The River Clitumnus, with its numerous springs, was sacred in Roman times, and there were many shrines along its course. Spolia from these may have been used in the existing structure. It has some traits in common with Roman temples, most notably its four-columned façade with a pediment above. The framing of the columns with two apparently contemporary square section columns is uncommon, but other aspects of its design mark it out as an Early Christian building (4th or 5th century ...

Article

Chinese, 8th century, male.

Active in Chang’an during the Tang dynasty in the first half of the 8th century.

Painter, sculptor. Murals.

Yang Huizhi sculpted clay landscapes and Buddhist figures, and painted frescoes.

Article

Chinese, 9th century, male.

Active in Chengdu (Sichuan) c. 825-850.

Born in Changan (Xian, Shensi).

Painter.

Zhao Gongyou painted Buddhist and Taoist figures. He initially lived at Chengdu, where he painted murals for a number of temples, later moving to Zhejiang. A fragment from a handscroll in the British Museum, ...