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Article

Amandus  

9th century, male.

Miniaturist.

Identified in the dedication to the Vivian Bible (now preserved in Paris) as a co-illustrator along with Sigvaldus and Aregarius.

Article

Columba  

Italian, 6th century, male.

Born c. 520; died 597.

Illuminator, calligrapher.

Lombard School.

Attributed to him is the magnificent volume known as the Gospel of St Columkille or The Durrow Book, preserved in Trinity College, Dublin.

Dublin (Trinity College Library): Gospel of St Columkille (The Durrow Book)...

Article

One of the few surviving, early medieval, Latin technical treatises. Its attribution, localization, and dating rest largely on internal evidence variously interpreted and inconclusive. The treatise now comprises three books: it is generally agreed that Books I and II, written in verse by one hand at some time between the 7th and 12th centuries, constitute the original text; Book III, written in prose, was added piecemeal during the 12th and 13th centuries. The treatise is commonly attributed to ...

Article

Lawrence Nees

Illuminated Carolingian Gospel book (Epernay, Bibliothèque municipal, cod. 1). The Ebbo Gospels is among the most famous of all early medieval manuscripts, and has figured in virtually all modern discussions of Carolingian art and of book illumination, primarily because of the wonderfully animated—some have said ‘expressionistic’—quality of the four portraits of the Evangelists, the only full-page figural decoration. Because of its style, it has generally been closely linked with an even more famous manuscript, the richly illustrated ...

Article

Erluin  

French, 9th century, male.

Active in Tours.

Miniaturist.

This artist illustrated religious books.

Article

8th century, male.

Calligrapher, illuminator.

In 781 or 782 Godescalcus wrote and painted the Gospel of Charlemagne now in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. It consists of extracts from the gospels for a whole year, and opens with a large miniature and several illuminations. This work was ordered for the baptism of Charlemagne's son Pepin in Rome in 781. The Capella Palatina was one of the principal centres of illumination at this period. This gospel marks a stage in the Carolingian Renaissance, deriving as it does from the art of Byzantium, but including decorated initials in the Irish style and a Christ in Majesty which shows Lombard influence....

Article

Don Denny

Book containing the four canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. The illustration of these manuscripts was an important art form during the early medieval period in western Europe and at all times in the history of the Eastern Church. The oldest extant decorated Gospel books are of the 6th century ...

Article

French, 8th century, female.

Illuminator, copyist.

Working with her sister Renilde, Harlinde illuminated a Gospel Book that was discovered by Martène in the sacristy of the church of Maes-Eyck. They were the daughters of Allard, Seigneur of Denain, and were educated at the convent of Valenciennes. In 714 they left home to found a convent on the banks of the Meuse, where they devoted their lives to prayer and the illumination of religious books. The Gospel Book referred to above was exhibited at the Brussels Exhibition of ...

Article

9th century, male.

Calligrapher, illuminator.

Johannes wrote and illuminated a work called Gregori Moraha, libre 28-35, now in Monte Cassino.

Article

Mulling  

Irish, 8th century, male.

Active in the second half of the 8th century.

Illuminator.

Anglo-Irish School.

Mulling copied and illuminated a Gospel in which three Evangelists are painted in a very stylised and rigid manner.

Article

German, 9th century, male.

Born 776, in Mainz; died 856, in Mainz.

Miniaturist, poet.

A pupil of Alcuin and a monk in Fulda, Rabanus later became Archbishop of Mainz. He illustrated his books with dedications and symbolic paintings in a primitive Christian style.

Article

Rabula  

6th century, male.

Activec.586.

Illuminator, calligrapher.

Rabula was a monk in the monastery of St John in Zagba (Mesopotamia). He is the author of a manuscript that has often been described, and is one of the most precious and ancient that has come down to us. Although Rabula's paintings, executed in pen with rather unsubtle colouring, are naturally primitive, they display surprisingly imaginative elements. In the composition of his ...

Article

Thomas  

German, 8th century, male.

Active in the second half of the 8th century.

Illuminator, calligrapher.

Thomas painted the miniatures and initials of a Gospel for Trier Cathedral in 775.

Article

Ultan  

Irish, 7th century, male.

Active at Lindisfarne (northeast England).

Died probably in 656.

Illuminator, calligrapher.

Anglo-Irish School.

Article

Wolfcoz  

Swiss, 9th century, male.

Active in St Gall during the first half of the 9th century.

Illuminator, calligrapher.

Wolfcoz was a monk. The Library of the abbey of St Gall possesses three manuscripts illuminated and decorated by him.

Article

Swiss, 8th century, male.

Illuminator, calligrapher.

The library at Schaffhausen has a manuscript illuminated by this artist.