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Crocket  

John Thomas

Decorative device used in Gothic art and architecture, attached to a capital or a gable, an arch, piece of tracery or coping. The term was used in medieval England in the forms crockytt and crockett. English writers of the Gothic Revival period, however, suggested a connection with the crook, noting that some of the earliest English examples take the form of the pastoral crosier, but this is probably a misinterpretation....

Article

Crypt  

Stephen Heywood

Subsidiary vaulted room normally below the main floor level but not necessarily wholly subterranean. The term is normally used of church architecture. Crypts are found throughout western Europe, until the 11th century associated with funerary rites and in particular with the cult of relics, simulating the form of a tomb if not an actual one. In some instances, churches were built around the existing tomb of a saint or a holy place. The most important example of this is the ...

Article

Cusp  

Point formed by the intersection of the curves in Gothic Tracery.

Article

Diptych  

Nigel J. Morgan

Two wood, ivory, or metal panels of equal size, usually hinged together so that they can be folded, and closed with some form of clasp. There are usually images on the inside surfaces of the panels and sometimes also on the outer sides. The panels are most commonly vertical rectangles; ...

Article

Icon  

Richard Temple

Wooden panel with a painting, usually in tempera, of a holy person or one of the traditional images of Orthodox Christianity (see fig.), the religion of the Byzantine empire practised today mainly in Greece and Russia (see Early Christian and Byzantine art, §VI...

Article

Jutland  

Harriet Sonne de Torrens

Mainland peninsula of modern-day Denmark and one of the three provinces (Jutland, Zealand and Skåne, southern Sweden) that constituted medieval Denmark. The conversion of the Danes to Christianity initiated a reorganization of the economic, social and legal structures of Denmark that would change the shape of Jutland dramatically between the 11th and 14th centuries. Under Knut the Great, King of Denmark and England (...

Article

Francis Woodman

A chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary in, or attached to, a larger church, particularly common in late medieval England. The cult of St Mary grew after her special status as Mother of God was formulated at the Council of Ephesos in ad 431. Churches were dedicated to her all over Christendom: ...

Article

Ogive  

Gothic pointed arch, vault or window (see Arch, fig., and Vault, fig.). The term is also applied to a diagonal rib of a vault.

Article

Jacques Heyman and Francis Woodman

A slender, turret-like projection employed universally as an architectural feature, particularly associated with Gothic architecture from the 13th to the 16th centuries, where it was used decoratively on such features as parapets and gables, and with some structural purpose on buttresses.

Jacques Heyman

A pinnacle placed on a ...

Article

Sarah Ferguson

Wall composed of two outer skins of ashlar, enclosing a rubble core supporting a passage through the thickness of the wall; it can also be called a double wall, or a thick-wall passage. The outer shell is usually a solid wall pierced by a window while the inner is a more open arcade. The two are connected at the bottom by a flat floor and at the top by a vault or slab (...

Article

Tracery  

Allan M. Brodie and Nicola Coldstream

Stone framework to hold sheets of glass in place within a window opening. Tracery is a particularly characteristic feature of Gothic architecture, appearing first in the late 12th century as a means of creating enlarged window openings. The term is derived from the stage in the construction process in which a window pattern was traced out on a bed of plaster laid on a tracing floor (...