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Article

Tessa Garton

Italian sculptor. His name occurs in inscriptions on a marble pulpit in Canosa Cathedral and on the beams of similar pulpits at S Maria, Siponto, and the Sanctuary of S Michele at Monte Sant’Angelo. The inscription on the Canosa pulpit (per iussionem domini mei guitberti venerabilis presbiteri, ego acceptus peccator archidiaconus feci[?t] hoc opus...

Article

British, 10th – 11th century, male.

Miniaturist.

This artist's signature is found on manuscripts preserved in Oxford and the British Museum.

London (British Mus.): manuscript

Oxford: manuscript

Article

British, 10th – 11th century, male.

Miniaturist.

This artist is worthy of mention because of the stylistic characteristics of his work. He was a monk at Westminster Abbey and one of the most important English miniaturists of the 10th and 11th centuries.

Article

Ai Xuan  

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born in Nanjing.

Painter. Flowers, animals.

Ai Xuan specialised in flowers and birds and was a member of the academy of painting during the reign of Emperor Shenzong (1068-1085).

Beijing (NM): Aubergines and Cabbages (signed work)

Article

French, 11th century, male.

Active in Le Puy-en-Velay (Haute-Loire).

Sculptor.

Aldebertus was the son of Gunsmarus de Maximiaco and Marie. He was Prior of St-Romain-le-Puy (Loire) in 1017, and a pupil of the masters who built the abbey church of St-Martin d'Ainay in Lyons. He is supposed to have built the church of St-Romain-le-Puy....

Article

Giuseppa Z. Zanichelli

Saint, doctor, archbishop of Salerno, and patron. Born of a noble Lombard family in Salerno, Alfanus pursued humanistic and scientific studies, studying at the Medical School in Salerno. In 1058, Leo of Ostia recorded that he was ‘prudentissimus et nobilissimus clericus e miram cantandi peritia, et medicinae artis scientiam non parvam habebat’ (...

Article

Algarve  

Kirk Ambrose

Southern-most region of mainland Portugal. Its name is derived from ‘the West’ in Arabic. This region has relatively few medieval buildings: devastating earthquakes in 1722 and 1755 contributed to these losses, though many buildings were deliberately destroyed during the Middle Ages. For example, in the 12th century the Almoravids likely razed a pilgrimage church, described in Arabic sources, at the tip of the cape of S Vicente. Mosques at Faro, Silves and Tavira, among others, appear to have been levelled to make room for church construction after the Reconquest of the region, completed in ...

Article

Alimpy  

G. I. Vzdornov

Russian painter and monk. He learnt the art of painting in the Pecherskaya Lavra (cave monastery) in Kiev, working alongside Greek artists who were decorating the cathedral of the Dormition (1073–89; destr. 1941) with mosaics and wall paintings: ‘Alimpy himself helped them and studied under them’ (Kievo-Pechersky ...

Article

Alipi  

Russian, 11th – 12th century, male.

Died 17 August 1114.

Painter.

This artist was a monk who took his name from that of the monastery in the caves of Kiev. He painted images of the oldest saints, having learned his art from the Byzantine painters who decorated the monastery church in ...

Article

Richard Gem, Carola Hicks, David Park, Janet Backhouse, Leslie Webster and Mildred Budny

Art of the period in England between the Germanic invasions of the later 5th century ad and the Norman Conquest of 1066.

The invading Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and possibly Frisians settled all over lowland England, bringing their Germanic culture (see Migration period) and establishing kingdoms—the Jutes and Saxons in the south and the Anglians in the east, Mercia (the Midlands), and what became Northumbria, north of the River Humber. The native British were pushed into Wales and the far south-west, and paganism replaced the Christianity that had survived from late Roman times. Artefacts from this period consist largely of burial goods recovered from excavated cemeteries....

Article

John N. Lupia

Type of ewer, usually of metal, used for the washing of hands in a liturgical or domestic context. It is often zoomorphic in form and usually has two openings, one for filling with water and the other for pouring. In their original usage aquamanilia expressed the symbolic significance of the lavabo, the ritual washing of the hands by the priest before vesting, before the consecration of the Eucharist and after mass. The earliest production of ...

Article

11th – 12th century, male.

Miniaturist.

A monk and author, Ardericus produced an 11th-century illuminated Bible which is now preserved in Turin library.

Article

Árpád  

János M. Bak

Modern term for the dynasty that ruled Hungary until 1301. Their name is derived from the chief of the Magyar tribal alliance, Prince Árpád (reg 896–907). During the four centuries of their reign (which included 5 princes and 21 kings, half of whom were buried in the now destroyed basilica at Székesfehérvár), the country became a Christian kingdom with a social and political order similar to its western neighbours. The art and architecture of the age was influenced mainly by Italian and French models with some Byzantine elements. The castle (after ...

Article

Greek, 11th century, male.

Active in Italy.

Miniaturist.

This artist was a monk, and signed a Greek manuscript decorated with miniatures that is preserved in the abbey of Monte Cassino.

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

Charles Buchanan

Type of large-format Bible, usually found in pandect (single-volume) form, produced in central Italy and Tuscany from around 1060 to the middle of the 12th century. They came out of the efforts of a reformist papacy intent on wresting control over ecclesiastical investiture from the Holy Roman Emperor. The Giant Bibles were produced in reformed canonries and monasteries and then exported to the same, not only in Italy but throughout Europe....

Article

Tania Velmans

Monastery situated on a wooded hill 11 km south of Asenovgrad in Bulgaria. It was founded in 1081 ad by the Georgian donors Grigori and Apazi Pakuriani after they had been granted control over extensive lands in the Rodopi Planina mountains by the Byzantine emperor Alexios Komnenos (...

Article

Richard K. Emmerson

Illuminated Ottonian manuscript (205×295 mm; Bamberg, Staatsbibl., MS. Bibl. 140) comprising 106 folios, divided into two halves, the first containing 50 miniatures illustrating the Book of Revelation, the second with 5 full-page miniatures illustrating Gospel readings from the Nativity to Pentecost. Separating the sections are two full-page images each with two registers. On the left St Peter and St Paul crown a young ruler, who is given obeisance by personifications of the four peoples of the empire, depicted below. They recall the personifications bringing gifts to the emperor in the Gospels of Otto III (Munich, Bayer. Staatsbib., Clm. 4453). Facing this imperial scene, on the right, Old Testament figures are paired with four personifications of the victorious virtues they model for the ruler: Abraham/Obedience, Moses/Purity, David/Repentance, and Job/Patience. The Apocalypse miniatures, of varying size and interspersed within the Latin text, are painted on gold grounds. Their iconography, descending from a Roman archetype, is related to the Carolingian Valenciennes Apocalypse (early 9th century; Valenciennes, Bib. Mun., MS. 99) and the contemporary Apocalypse fresco of Novara Baptistery. The vigorous colours and sumptuous execution of the miniatures, including an early detailed ...

Article

David M. Wilson

Embroidered strip of linen telling and interpreting the story of the events starting in 1064 that led up to the Battle of Hastings and the Norman Conquest of England in 1066. It is made up of eight conjoined sections of different lengths. The scenes at the end of the tapestry are damaged and some are lost, but its surviving length is 68.38 m and its depth varies between 457 and 536 mm. The linen is relatively fine (18 or 19 warp and weft threads per 10 mm) and the embroidery is in wool, in laid-and-couched work, defined by stem or outline stitch. The latter is also used for all the linear detail and the lettering. No trace of any construction lines or of tracing from a cartoon remains on the tapestry. The colours are terracotta, blue–green, a golden yellow, olive green, blue, a dark blue or black (used for the first third of the tapestry), and a sage green. Later repairs were carried out mainly in light yellow, greens, and oranges. The earliest possible mention of the tapestry is in ...

Article

Benno  

Joachim E. Gaehde

German bishop and patron. The Vita Bennonis (1090–1100) by Norbert, abbot of the monastery at Iburg, calls Benno a distinguished master builder (architectus praecipuus) and ingenious administrator of stonework (caementarii operis sollertissimus dispositor). Free-born, he was educated at Strasbourg and Reichenau, later joining the cathedral school of Speyer. Shortly after ...