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J. M. Rogers

Arab metalworker. He is known from signatures on two undated inlaid wares, the Baptistère de St Louis (Paris, Louvre, LP 16, signed in six places) and the Vasselot Bowl (Paris, Louvre, MAO 331, signed once). His style is characterized by bold compositions of large figures encrusted with silver plaques on which details are elaborately chased. His repertory develops themes characteristic of later 13th-century metalwork from Mosul (...

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Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered....

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P. S. Garlake

Complex of dry-stone walls among the hills on the south-eastern edge of the plateau c. 250 km south of Harare in Zimbabwe (see fig.). It was built and occupied between the 11th and 15th centuries ad as the capital of a state of the Bantu-speaking peoples now known as the ...

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Marianne Barrucand

Dynasty that ruled in Tunisia and eastern Algeria from 1228 to 1574. Descended from Abu Hafs ‛Umar (d 1176), a disciple of the founder of the Almohad movement, Abu Zakariya Yahya I (reg 1228–49) was governor of the region for the Almohads. He declared his independence in ...

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R. Nath and Robert Irwin

Name applied to two distinct sequences of Islamic rulers in northern India and the Levant from the 13th century. Many but not all of the rulers were manumitted slaves of Turkish origin, hence the common names of the lines.

R. Nath

This quasi-dynastic line of Turks conquered and ruled northern India from ...

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Michael Curschmann

The medieval term mappa mundi (also forma mundi, historia/istoire) covers a broad array of maps of the world of which roughly 1100 survive. These have resisted systematic classification, but the clearly dominant type is one that aims at comprehensively symbolistic representation. Its early, schematic form is a disc composed of three continents surrounded and separated from one another by water (“T-O Map”) and associated with the three sons of Noah: Asia (Shem) occupies all of the upper half, Europe (Japhet) to the left and Africa (Ham) to the right share the lower half. Quadripartite cartographic schemes included the antipodes as a fourth continent, but the tripartite model was adopted by the large majority of the more developed world maps in use from the 11th century on and—with important variations—well into the Renaissance. While details were added as available space permitted, the Mediterranean continued to serve as the vertical axis and, with diminishing clarity, the rivers Don and Nile as the horizontal one. The map also continues to be ‘oriented’ towards Asia, where paradise sits at the very top. A circular ocean forms the perimeter and not infrequently the city of Jerusalem constitutes its centre....

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Marinid  

Lucien Golvin

Islamic dynasty that ruled in north-west Africa from 1196 to 1465. The Marinids, a tribe of nomadic Zanata Berbers, took Marrakesh from the last Almohad ruler in 1269 and extended their power in the 14th century. Abu’l-Hasan ‛Ali (reg 1331–48) conquered all of North Africa, thus reconstituting the great Almohad empire, but was unable to sustain rule in Tunisia and was forced to withdraw in ...

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