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Article

A. H.  

German, 16th – 17th century, male.

Monogram of an engraver, copyist. Religious subjects.

A. H. was a copyist of Albrecht Dürer. A print dated 1589 is attributed to him: The Virgin Crowned with Stars, after the work by Dürer.

Article

Andreas Stolzenburg

In 

See Stimmer family

Article

Jane Geddes

Deluxe manuscript (Aberdeen, U. Lib., MS. 24) made in England around 1200. It is remarkable for its lavish illustrations, amply covered in gold leaf; for the wealth of its codicological data and for its close relationship to the Ashmole Bestiary. The book was left unfinished, so sketches and the detailed instructions for its colouring and assembly remain visible. The last few pages were completed in the 14th century. The book begins with a Creation cycle of full-page miniatures culminating in ...

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Active in Bordeaux.

Born in Bordeaux.

Illuminator.

Article

Wheeler M. Thackston

Persian calligrapher. He belonged to a family of Husayni sayyids, or descendants of the Prophet, and his father was a chandler. He was trained in calligraphy at Herat by Mir ‛Ali Husayni Haravi. When Mir ‛Ali was taken to Bukhara by the Uzbeks in 1529...

Article

Sheila R. Canby

Persian illustrator, illuminator and calligrapher . The grandson and pupil of Sultan-Muhammad , Zayn al-‛Abidin worked exclusively for royal and noble patrons at the Safavid court in Qazvin ( see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(a) ). He contributed an illustration of Nariman Killing the Ruler of China to a copy (London, BL, Or. MS. 12985; fol. 90...

Article

Milo Cleveland Beach, Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Iranian miniature painter and calligrapher, active also in India. Trained in Safavid Iran, ‛Abd al-Samad migrated to India, where he became director of the Mughal painting workshops under the emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605). In this key position, he influenced the development of Mughal painting in the second half of the 16th century more than any other artist (...

Article

Alchemy  

Laurinda Dixon

Ancient science from which modern chemistry evolved. Based on the concept of transmutation—the changing of substances at the elemental level—it was both a mechanical art and an exalted philosophy. Practitioners attempted to combine substances containing the four elements (fire, water, earth, and air) in perfect balance, ultimately perfecting them into a fifth, the quintessence (also known as the philosopher’s stone) via the chemical process of distillation. The ultimate result was a substance, the ‘philosopher’s stone’, or ‘elixir of life’, believed capable of perfecting, or healing, all material things. Chemists imitated the Christian life cycle in their operations, allegorically marrying their ingredients, multiplying them, and destroying them so that they could then be cleansed and ‘resurrected’. They viewed their work as a means of attaining salvation and as a solemn Christian duty. As such, spiritual alchemy was sanctioned, legitimized, and patronized by the Church. Its mundane laboratory procedures were also supported by secular rulers for material gain. Metallurgists employed chemical apparatus in their attempts to transmute base metals into gold, whereas physicians and apothecaries sought ultimately to distill a cure-all elixir of life. The manifold possibilities inherent in such an outcome caused Papal and secular authorities to limit and control the practice of alchemy by requiring licences and punishing those who worked without authorization....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Style of late 15th- and early 16th- century North Italian bookbinding associated with Aldus Manutius but not restricted to the publications of the Aldine Press. The design of the bindings, which were usually in brown or red morocco, was relatively simple, consisting of geometrical strapwork or rectangular panels of gold fillets. The arabesques in the corners of the panels are called ‘Aldine fleurons’ or ‘Aldine knot leaves’....

Article

Sheila R. Canby

Persian painter, active also in India. He was the son of the Safavid-period painter Mir Musavvir. Though Qazi Ahmad, writing in the late 16th century, deemed him cleverer in art than his father, Mir Sayyid ‛Ali reveals paternal influence in his meticulous rendering of ornamental patterns and details. As he was a junior artist at the time of the royal ...

Article

Sheila S. Blair

Persian illustrator. According to the Safavid chronicler Qazi Ahmad, during the lifetime of the famous painter Sultan-Muhammad, his son Mirza ‛Ali worked in the library of the Safavid ruler Tahmasp I and had no match in figural and decorative painting and in portraiture. The Ottoman historian Mustafa ‛Ali placed Mirza ‛Ali at the head of the list of designers and called him a celebrated master and painter. Two paintings in the magnificent copy (London, BL, Or. MS. 2265, fols 48...

Article

Sheila S. Blair

Persian calligrapher, illustrator, painter and poet. He was a versatile artist who belonged to the second generation working for Tahmasp I (reg 1524–76) at the Safavid court in north-west Iran (see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(a)). His career has been reconstructed by Dickson and Welch on the basis of brief notices by Safavid artists and historians, signed calligraphies and ascribed paintings. He studied calligraphy with the master ...

Article

Sheila R. Canby

Iranian illustrator. He was one of the most renowned painters at the court of the Timurid sultan Husayn Bayqara (see Timurid family, §II, (8)) and his associate ‛Alishir Nava’i (see also Islamic art, §III, 4(v)(d)). The chronicler Mīrzā Muhammad Haydar Dughlāt (...

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Active between 1512 and 1561.

Painter, engraver (wood), illustrator. Religious subjects.

Erhard Altdorfer is believed to have been the brother of Albrecht Altdorfer. The latter mentions him in his will, dated 12 February 1538, as a citizen of Schwerin. Erhard was a painter to the court of Prince Henry the Peaceful and accompanied him to a royal wedding in Wittenburg. This occasion is believed to have given him the opportunity to meet Lucas Cranach, whose influence can be detected in some of his works. In 1516 he painted an altarpiece in Sternberg, Germany, which has been lost. In a 1552 letter to the young Duke John-Albert of Mecklenburg, he gives the impression of having been an architect along with his brother. Erhard Altdorfer is known today for his wood engravings, some of which are signed with a monogram formed by an intertwining of the letters ...

Article

Alvarus  

Portuguese, 16th century, male.

Miniaturist.

Alvarus embellished the Reform books of King John III. Book XI, Extremadura, bears the date 1527 and the name P. Alvarus on the title page. The artist is possibly the same as Pires Alvaro, painter to Emmanuel and John III, who is mentioned by Cyrillo Machado....

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 16th century.

Miniaturist.

Alvise da Napoli assisted the painter Matteo da Terranova. He accompanied Terranova from convent to convent where they embellished choir books. They visited Naples, Monte Cassino and Perugia. Illuminations by Alvise can be seen in the convent of S Pietro in Perugia....

Article

Swiss, 16th century, male.

Active in Germany from 1560.

Born 1539, in Zurich; died 15 March 1591, in Nuremberg.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator.

Nuremberg School.

Like his great predecessors Dürer, Aldegrever and Beham, Jost Amman devoted his artistic efforts to engraving. Little is known of his paintings. He produced remarkable stained glass windows with brilliant colours, as did many other Swiss artists. It is reasonable to suppose that before leaving Zurich for Nuremberg he had the opportunity to work with some of the accomplished stained glass painters who enjoyed a privileged social position in 16th-century Switzerland. It is not known who taught him. In 1560 he settled in Nuremberg where he spent the rest of his life, honourably continuing the tradition of his great artistic predecessors. Judging by his production (540 works), he was very successful....

Article

Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Illuminator, calligrapher.

Andrea dalle Vese worked on the missals and antiphonaries of Ferrara Cathedral and also for the S Bartolo abbey near Ferrara.

Article

Antico  

Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born c. 1460; died 1528, in Bózzolo.

Goldsmith, sculptor, medallist, copyist. Statues, statuettes.

Antico was from Mantua and went to Rome in 1495 and 1497. His first commission was in 1479, for a pair of medals commemorating the wedding of Gianfranceso Gonzaga to Antonia del Banzo. His first visit to Rome, in ...

Article

Spanish, 16th century, male.

Born 1498, in Toledo; died 1551, in Madrid.

Miniaturist, illuminator.

In Toledo in 1520, Diego de Arroyo painted miniatures for the books of the city's cathedral. He was in the service of Philip II and executed a number of works for him, including four portraits of the Empress Isabella (...