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Article

Jane Geddes

Deluxe manuscript (Aberdeen, U. Lib., MS. 24) made in England around 1200. It is remarkable for its lavish illustrations, amply covered in gold leaf; for the wealth of its codicological data and for its close relationship to the Ashmole Bestiary. The book was left unfinished, so sketches and the detailed instructions for its colouring and assembly remain visible. The last few pages were completed in the 14th century. The book begins with a Creation cycle of full-page miniatures culminating in ...

Article

Illustrator and painter. According to the Safavid chronicler Dust Muhammad, ‛Abd al-Hayy trained under Shams al-Din at Baghdad during the reign of the Jalayirid sultan Uways I (reg 1356–74) and became the leading painter under his son Ahmad (reg 1382–1410), who was also ‛Abd al-Hayy’s pupil. When Timur took Baghdad, ‛Abd al-Hayy was sent to Samarkand, either in ...

Article

Sheila S. Blair

Ilkhanid Calligrapher . According to the Safavid chronicler Qazi Ahmad, Yahya studied calligraphy with Mubarakshah ibn Qutb Tabrizi ( fl c. 1323), one of six pupils of Yaqut al-Musta‛simi ( see also Islamic art, §III, 2(iii)(c) ). Yahya was a mystic, hence his epithet al-Sufi, and, after working for the warlord ...

Article

Calligrapher. He came from a well-known family of mystics and was probably the grandson of the Sufi master Shihab al-Din Abu Hafs ‛Umar al-Suhrawardi (1145–1234). He was often called Shaykhzada (‘Son of the shaykh’). Ahmad was one of the six disciples of Yaqut al-Musta‛simi...

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Illuminator.

Albertus was a monk in the abbey of Ste-Bénigne in Dijon.

Article

Alchemy  

Laurinda Dixon

Ancient science from which modern chemistry evolved. Based on the concept of transmutation—the changing of substances at the elemental level—it was both a mechanical art and an exalted philosophy. Practitioners attempted to combine substances containing the four elements (fire, water, earth, and air) in perfect balance, ultimately perfecting them into a fifth, the quintessence (also known as the philosopher’s stone) via the chemical process of distillation. The ultimate result was a substance, the ‘philosopher’s stone’, or ‘elixir of life’, believed capable of perfecting, or healing, all material things. Chemists imitated the Christian life cycle in their operations, allegorically marrying their ingredients, multiplying them, and destroying them so that they could then be cleansed and ‘resurrected’. They viewed their work as a means of attaining salvation and as a solemn Christian duty. As such, spiritual alchemy was sanctioned, legitimized, and patronized by the Church. Its mundane laboratory procedures were also supported by secular rulers for material gain. Metallurgists employed chemical apparatus in their attempts to transmute base metals into gold, whereas physicians and apothecaries sought ultimately to distill a cure-all elixir of life. The manifold possibilities inherent in such an outcome caused Papal and secular authorities to limit and control the practice of alchemy by requiring licences and punishing those who worked without authorization....

Article

Yi Am  

Korean calligrapher. He is considered one of the last great calligraphers of the Koryŏ period (918–1392). Born into a noble family, at the age of 17 he passed his first examinations and entered the Confucian academy in Kaesŏng, where he eventually rose to prominence in the central administration. Information on his life, and in particular on his career as an official, can be found in the ...

Article

Ancelet  

French, 14th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 14th century.

Illuminator.

Ancelet worked with Jean Pucelle and Jacquet Maci on the decoration of the two most beautiful manuscripts of his time: a Latin Bible dated 1327 and the Breviary of Belleville.

Paris (BNF): ...

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Active in Avignon.

Illuminator.

Avignon School.

André de Beauvais worked for Pope Benedict XV.

Article

Béla Zsolt Szakács

Luxuriously illustrated hagiographical picture book from the 14th century. The codex is fragmented; the biggest part is preserved in the Vatican (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, Vat. Lat. 8541, 106 fols),while single pages are kept in St Petersburg (Hermitage, 16930–16934), Berkeley (U. CA, Bancroft Lib., f2MSA2M21300–37), New York (Met., ...

Article

French, 14th – 15th century, male.

Active in Paris at the end of the 14th century.

Died before 1414.

Illuminator.

Article

Artistic manifestations of Arthurian legends antedate surviving textual traditions and sometimes bear witness to stories that have not survived in written form. Thus the Tristan sculptures (c. 1102–17) carved on a column from the north transept of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Illuminator.

In 1381 Guillaume de Bailly made illuminated illustrations for a copy of Jean Froissart's Chronicle ( Chronique) made for the king of England.

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Active probably in Champagne.

Illuminator.

Guillaume de Barach illuminated books for Troyes Cathedral.

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Illuminator.

Avignon School.

In 1357 Bartholot de Paris was working in the library of Clement VI.

Article

Spanish, 14th century, male.

Painter, illuminator.

Attached to the court of Aragon, Batet was chaplain to Pedro IV and his successor Juan I.

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Active in Bar-le-Duc in 1360.

Illuminator.

Adrien Beauneveu is mentioned by Jacquot in his Preliminary Catalogue of Artists from Lorraine ( Essai de répertoire des Artistes Lorrains), but it is possible that there was a confusion with André Beauneveu.

Article

French, 14th – 15th century, male.

Born c. 1335, in Valenciennes; died between 1403 and 1413, in Bourges.

Painter, illuminator, sculptor. Funerary monuments (recumbent statues).

Beauneveu has been described as the most distinguished sculptor and painter of his time. His hand was responsible for the illuminations in the ...

Article

Patrick M. de Winter

South Netherlandish sculptor, painter, and illuminator. He possibly trained with, or in the circle of, Jean Pépin de Huy. He is presumably the ‘Master Andrieu the painter’ mentioned in the accounts of Yolande, Duchesse de Bar, as working intermittently between 1359 and 1362 in the chapel of her castle at Nieppe (destr.). In ...